Quarter development: features of territory planning, infrastructure. Modern trends in urban planning

Quarter development: features of territory planning, infrastructure. Modern trends in urban planning
Quarter development: features of territory planning, infrastructure. Modern trends in urban planning
Anonim

In recent years in Russia, at the state level, the idea that quarterly development should supplant microdistrict development has been actively promoted. Due to the fact that it is considered not only more modern, but also more convenient for residents. Let's find out what its features are.

modern block building

Current situation

Building up the city is considered the main stage of its development. Much depends on how the territory will be built up, starting with logistical solutions and ending with the presence of conflict issues between residents of the same house or yard.

You can consider building from absolutely different positions. For example, discussing exclusively the road network or, conversely, the location of residential buildings and public facilities.

What is the current situation in the urban development market? Almost every city has a historical center, which is distinguished mainly by mid-rise buildings with a compact arrangement of residential facilities andrather narrow streets by modern standards.

There is a whole category of objects that appeared during the existence of Soviet power. Such a building is quite typical. Houses stand, as a rule, at a distance from roads and are located chaotically. Similar areas are also characterized by an undeveloped road network. At the same time, there are many empty, unused territories.

Features of modern buildings

Older districts usually have small streets, since during the period of their development, there were no large flows of cars in the cities. At the moment, the situation is changing dramatically. An increasing number of citizens are acquiring personal vehicles. This leaves a special imprint on the trends of modern construction.

block planning

Urban planners plan objects in such a way that they are located along the roads, and not in the distance. Applying the principles of quarterly development, it is possible to quite clearly distinguish between private and public areas. The street is perceived as a public place, and the territory inside the block becomes a personal space intended exclusively for its residents. This approach has an important psychological factor. Residents are beginning to take better care of common property. With micro-district development, houses are located chaotically, there is no clear understanding of what is personal and what is common, so many citizens often do not give a damn about the territories located outside the thresholds of their own apartments.

Quarter development in Russia

According to the experts,the chief architect of Moscow focuses precisely on the above-mentioned type when planning new metropolitan buildings. However, this trend is not limited to the Moscow Ring Road, but extends to the entire territory of the country. The trend towards quarterly development can be observed throughout the state. The main reason is that in this way they seek to increase the level of comfort for urban residents.

An example of similar development in other cities is the residential complex "Lights of Siberia" in Novosibirsk. The quarter is located in the Central district of the city, and on its territory it is planned to build several residential buildings with a height of six to twenty-five floors. Socially significant objects for the population will be placed inside the quarter. In addition, the LCD "Lights of Siberia" in Novosibirsk has good transport accessibility, as it is located close to the metro.

Modern trends in urban planning

Currently, in the construction industry, there is a widespread transition to block development, which brings fundamentally new features.

Many city dwellers have a feeling that the city is not a place for physical existence, but for a meaningful life. That is why the desire to ensure a high quality of life is laid at the stage of designing future quarters. This allows urban planners to design functional public spaces, control building heights, take care of pedestrian comfort, create unique facade designs, etc.

building plan

It is worth saying that most of today's buildings, for example, in the capital appeared in the middle of the last century. Then the main task of construction was to provide the population with housing. Moreover, much less attention was paid to the level of comfort than in modern times. When creating a master plan for a quarterly development, city planners focus on the amenities that future residents will receive. Consumers often like this approach. Unlike micro-district development, modern spaces are becoming more comfortable.

Benefits

  • Street network. If we talk about neighborhoods, they occupy a fairly large area with randomly located houses and streets. As a rule, their borders are delineated by highways passing nearby. Therefore, traffic is often carried out on intra-yard roads, which is considered unsafe and leads to traffic jams. The quarterly type of development is smaller territories. The streets in them are located perpendicular. This creates additional convenience for drivers and prevents traffic jams. That's why block building is so popular in Europe.
  • Personal space. With the above type of planning of the living space, the courtyard is, as it were, separated from the surrounding territory by residential buildings. According to experts, this creates greater psychological comfort for local residents than the presence of fences. At the same time, public institutions such as shops, cafes, etc. are being equipped outside.
  • Equipped yards. With quarterly planning, courtyards turn into public spaces,comfortable for pedestrians. It can be small squares, parks, pedestrian zones.
  • Architectural variety. Within the microdistrict, all buildings have a uniform appearance. If the house is somehow distinguished by its appearance from the rest, it is perceived as something foreign. Each quarter has a unique facade design. At the same time, the city creates a sense of architectural diversity.
  • Better infrastructure. The quarter has a smaller territory than the microdistrict. However, this does not prevent city planners from recreating in it all the objects necessary for a comfortable life.
block building in russia

Features of territory planning

  • Modern block development involves the formation of a public environment not inside away from the roads, but, on the contrary, along the streets that divide the entire area into small sectors. At the same time, the space inside the block remains private, not public.
  • One of the features is also the presence of a whole grid of narrow streets. There are noticeably fewer roads in microdistricts, but at the same time they are wider. Within the block there is a continuous network of roads with densely spaced streets.
  • It assumes a high building density, combined with a small number of storeys. One side of the block is an average of one hundred to three hundred meters. If the distance between the streets is three hundred meters, it is often assumed that there are through sections for pedestrians inside residential complexes.
  • Along the perimeter of modern quarters there are streets calculated notonly for car traffic, but also for pedestrian traffic. Houses tend to face the sidewalk, which is considered a public space. At the same time, each block of residential buildings has its own courtyard area.
  • Inside the residential complex, you can use the territory more efficiently by dividing it into private and public spaces. Each block combines several buildings of different heights, the first floors of which are often occupied by public buildings overlooking the street.
  • The peculiarity of quarterly development is that it assumes a compact arrangement of objects, as well as a high density. On the one hand, Russian citizens, accustomed to vast territories, find this not only unusual, but also uncomfortable at the same time. However, there is another - the opposite - point of view on this issue. On a citywide scale, dense housing allows distances to be reduced. This means that citizens will be able to get to the desired object faster and spend less time and, accordingly, money while on the road. In addition, empty, unused spaces create a feeling of psychological discomfort, making people want to leave them sooner.
territory planning project within the framework of quarterly development

Quarter or neighborhood?

Earlier, housing construction was carried out according to the principle of microdistricts, which were separated by highways from the main part of the city. At the same time, there was no through passage inside. The roads were intended exclusively for the entrance to the houses. Such an arrangementwas considered safe, since the main infrastructure facilities were located inside the microdistrict, so residents did not have to cross the roadway to get to the desired facility. Including it was convenient for children.

Despite the fact that the microdistrict is expected to have a large amount of free space, this feature can turn into a disadvantage. For example, unused spaces quickly become empty, as they do not have a clearly defined functional purpose. In addition, in the microdistrict, a spacious yard is designed for several houses at once. A large space is more difficult to control and ensure the safety of its inhabitants.

Modern housing is built according to slightly different principles. First of all, it concerns the developed territory. The quarter, as a rule, consists of only a few buildings, surrounded by narrow streets. According to city planners, it is convenient for both pedestrians and drivers. Motorists get more traffic and can build alternative routes. Pedestrians can enjoy a yard free from excessive vehicle traffic.

So, what is better - quarterly or microdistrict development? Each layout has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. For now, however, urban planners are favoring a more compact, modern layout as a major trend.

what is better quarterly or microdistrict building

Infrastructure

Quarterly development in its principles resemblesthe private sector, fenced off from the external environment. Buyers in the real estate market are often attracted to a self-sufficient environment that fits well into the general urban space.

It is assumed that all the necessary infrastructure should not be located inside, as is done in microdistricts, but outside. The residential quarter is separated from the general space by a network of rather narrow streets. Inside there is a courtyard space, equipped for the comfort of residents, and outside - various infrastructure facilities. For example, the first floors of buildings are often occupied by public establishments such as shops, restaurants, etc.

In general, quarterly development creates a favorable climate for the development of commercial infrastructure, as it makes it more predictable for potential consumers. If the outlet is located along a public sidewalk, it is more likely to be visited regularly. In microdistricts, all the infrastructure is located inside, therefore, mainly local residents can be considered as potential buyers.

Quarter development cannot be called ideal. On the Russian market, it still remains not fully understood by consumers. Many of them are accustomed to long distances between houses and wide roads. Not everyone likes dense buildings with a pile of residential buildings. This carries a certain psychological discomfort.

Difficulties

The territory planning project within the quarterly development must comply with current regulations. However, in practice, comply with all established rulesrather difficult. Building codes are still based on the principles of large spaces. The authorities, despite the active promotion of block development, do not take sufficient measures to help urban planners.

For example, in accordance with the requirements of the law, residential buildings should be located no closer than twenty meters to roads. For kindergartens and schools, these norms are somewhat higher, which creates additional difficulties for those who plan to put into practice a block development project.

However, this does not always work. Some urban planners have to adjust the number of storeys of future buildings, some fail to provide through passages. As a result, instead of full-fledged isolated territories, modern quarters are obtained inside obsolete microdistricts. This is the inevitable reality.

block building

Functional purpose of space

Earlier, in the trends of urban planning, a conditional division into bedroom and business areas was adopted. The former were intended exclusively for life, and the latter for work.

However, the modern concept moves away from such a division due to its significant shortcomings. For example, most people have to leave the area in the morning to go to work and return in the evening. This creates an increased load on the road network and causes traffic jams, in which citizens lose a lot of their own time. In addition, it makes their daily leisure more scarce, forcing them to stay at home in the evenings. Anotherthe lack of residential areas in reducing the level of security associated with a small flow of people during the day and evening.

That's why modern urban planning comes to the decision to make buildings more mixed. With this concept, office or commercial public spaces are located near residential buildings or detached quarters. In this way, it is possible to reduce the flow of pendulum migration, when many residents of the district leave for work in the morning and return back in the evening. In addition, the absence of the need to regularly use the car has a positive effect on the environmental situation in the city.

Stories

The logic of town planning is usually simple. The more expensive the land, the more floors. Mid-rise buildings are considered to be no more than ten stories high. There is an opinion that the higher the residential building, the more difficult it is for those living in it to maintain neighborly relations.

However, the opposite extreme - low-rise construction - also cannot be called a good solution. This leads to an increase in the built-up area and creates an increased load on the road network, as the distances between objects increase significantly. People are starting to use cars more often, worsening the environment.

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