Every person at least once in his life faced a similar problem as a broken wire. Not many people want to make such a trifling request to the workshop, so they prefer to master the soldering technique on their own and carry out repairs at home. It is quite possible to carry out this operation. But you need to know some nuances. We will tell about all the intricacies of work in our today's article.
During the use of aluminum conductors, a significant disadvantage is their rapid oxidation. In order for such a process not to interfere with the passage of electric current, their twists are soldered.
Soldering aluminum wires in the junction box is carried out using a gas burner or a soldering iron. If you compare these two methods, then working with a soldering iron is much more difficult. This is due to the impossibility ofheat up to the required temperature. And for aluminum, both overheating and insufficient heating are unacceptable.
As for the gas burner, it is much easier to control the heating temperature with its help. Regardless of the equipment used, before soldering aluminum wires at home, the necessary preparation must be carried out. Let's take a closer look at this point.
Aluminum is considered to be a fusible material due to its characteristics, which can melt at the slightest careless heating. It is in this property that the main difficulty of such soldering lies. The operation is also complicated by the fact that in the air aluminum wires undergo oxidation.
The resulting film as a result of oxidation reliably protects the surface of the material from the negative effects of external factors, but at the same time also prevents the connection of the material. Before soldering aluminum wires with a soldering iron, this film must be removed.
Under normal conditions, mechanically removing the film from the wires will not work, as they will instantly undergo oxidation, and, accordingly, be covered with a new film.
Cope with this problem will help the oil, which must first be heated to two hundred degrees. This is necessary in order to remove the oxygen present from it. But even so, the process of removing the film at home will be inconvenient and very time consuming.
The best option is tinning the wires before soldering. To do this, use a mechanical method and a special flux. All manipulations must be carried out until the moment when the wires are twisted. Otherwise, it will not be possible to clean the surface completely. After the ends are tinned, they can be twisted together and soldered.
Before you solder aluminum wires, you should take care of the presence of a soldering iron, solder and flux. It is best if all work will be carried out on a wooden stand, which must be prepared in advance so as not to damage the surface of the table.
Before starting work, the wires must be carefully stripped. To do this, prepare and use sandpaper (coarse paper is best). Before soldering aluminum wires, they must be degreased with an alcohol solution.
For convenience, you need to prepare safety glasses and tweezers. They will help to accurately join thin elements and prevent eye injuries.
Sequence of work
Soldering aluminum wires together must be carried out in strict sequence:
- first of all, a thorough cleaning of the surface of the conductors is carried out, since any extraneous coating can make the connection unreliable;
- then all the stripped ends are coated with flux, which prevents the wires from oxidizing duringoperation;
- when using a soldering iron, solder is melted, which is subsequently applied in an even, thin layer to the ends of the conductors.
- wires must be carefully connected with tweezers or temporary twist;
- to prevent the appearance of rust under the solder, you will additionally need to apply flux to the joint;
- then use a soldering iron to melt the solder and distribute it evenly around the joined ends;
- the final step is a thorough cleaning of the soldering iron, special attention should be paid to the tip, which is then best treated with an inactive flux.
Soldering copper and aluminum wires is often done by welding. This type of connection provides reliable and monolithic contact. Work is performed on the ends of the conductors, which must be pre-stripped and twisted. Recently, inverter welding machines have been used to connect wires in this way.
All joints that are obtained by welding have excellent mechanical strength, as well as durability and excellent contact conductivity.
Soldering of aluminum wires is carried out using flux. This is a kind of mixture, which is specially created to improve the quality of the connection of conductors. The melting of the flux begins before the soldering process, as it directly prepares the surface for joining.
Flux for soldering aluminum wires is passive and active. Lastdiffers in that it contains acids and harmful volatile substances, which immediately before soldering pickle the metal, and also remove grease and oxides from it. Passive does not contain acids and acts on pollution as a solvent. The most popular flux is rosin, which is made from wood resin.
Thanks to fluxes, it became possible to solder metals that would be almost impossible to join without them.
So that soldering aluminum wires does not damage property, you need to take care of the availability of additional devices. The soldering iron needs a stand. It will help protect surrounding objects from exposure to high temperatures. For soldering, you will also need to purchase a special pad that will be resistant to molten flux or solder.
To ensure your comfort during work, it is better to fix all items. To do this, you can use pliers, which can be used to press the wire to the soldering point. It is recommended to use a clamp to fix the desoldering.
In order for do-it-yourself soldering of aluminum wires to be done perfectly, experts recommend adhering to certain recommendations. Before proceeding with the connection of wires, be sure to check the soldering iron. It should be clean, it should not have shells or bumps, as well as black soot. If there are any-or deviations, in which case it needs to be cleaned.
You can use a file for this. During the operation, you should also pay attention to the condition of the soldering iron. Try to keep it clean at all times. It is best to start soldering from the side farthest from the insulation. Upon completion of work, all joints must be isolated. For this, it is recommended to use PVC or cotton insulation.
You need to be able to properly handle the soldering iron. First of all, you need to learn how to determine whether the place for soldering is heated enough. If a conventional soldering iron is used for work, then in this case it is necessary to navigate by the behavior of the flux or rosin. If these components boil and release steam, then this indicates a sufficient level of heating.
Once the place to be soldered is properly warmed up, solder can be added, which is applied in both liquid and solid form. In order for the connection to be of high quality, it is necessary to closely withstand the temperature and perform all actions carefully. It is not recommended to overheat, and also to use a large amount of solder.
To ensure a reliable connection of wires, the whole process must be carried out competently and accurately. If the wires were treated with acid fluxes, then after they cool down, it is imperative to wash off the solder residues. This can be done with wetrags or sponges that are pre-moistened in soapy water and then dried a little.
The ability to independently solder in modern life is simply a necessary experience. Now there are many methods of joining various metals. But first of all, you need to have skills in working with a soldering iron. Only in this case can a reliable connection of the wires be ensured. During the soldering process, all recommendations must be strictly observed, since this process is considered quite complicated and does not accept errors. This is especially true for the choice of connection method, flux and solder. Do-it-yourself soldering wires at home will help you out more than once and help you repair any equipment.