One-story industrial building: types, features and construction of structures

One-story industrial building: types, features and construction of structures
One-story industrial building: types, features and construction of structures
Anonim

In industrial construction, one-story structures occupy an important place. They have some characteristic features. A one-story industrial building (SHI) may refer to one or another type. This determines its operational features, scope. Features of such buildings will be discussed in detail below.

Benefits

The construction of one-story industrial buildings has a number of advantages and disadvantages.

reinforced concrete one-story industrial building

This determines the features of the operation of such objects. The positive characteristics of an HMO are:

  • According to the construction technology, they are universal. You can create larger spans, which provides a large selection of planning solutions. They are more flexible and mobile, which allows you to meet the needs of production. One-story buildings can withstand a large load on the floor. It is quite possible to place a large number oflarge machine tools, production lines, machine tools.
  • Building is compact, which allows for maximum blocking. In this case, overhead lighting will be the best solution.
  • With proper design of a one-story industrial building, it is possible to provide a sufficient level of natural light, ventilation systems. For this, such systems are created through the roof. It always runs parallel to the work surface.
  • Efficient, easier building operation. Here you can use both floor varieties of electric or gasoline vehicles, as well as overhead cranes.
  • Simplified connections are created between rooms. They will only be horizontal. Therefore, the number of loading and unloading operations will be minimal. Pedestrian communications will also be easier. They are often equipped on the second level, since it is required to exclude their intersection with freight transport. This makes the work of personnel and the operation of trucks more efficient and safer.
  • The industrialization of construction is facilitated, which allows for a more simplified unification, a decrease in the number of standard sizes of structural elements. This allows you to significantly speed up the construction process. The installation of the frame of a one-story industrial building can be carried out in parallel, at the same time. The front of work in this case is wide.

But the presented variety of industrial buildings has a number of disadvantages. You should learn about them before starting the construction and operation of the building.

Flaws

It is worth noting that the installation of one-story industrial buildings is not always possible.

construction of one-story industrial buildings

This is due to a number of shortcomings of such structures. The main ones are the following facts:

  • To assemble a solid frame of a one-story industrial building, you need to choose a perfectly flat area. The terrain here should be flat. As a rule, these are fertile soils that are used by agriculture.
  • This type of construction is characterized by high costs for ensuring appropriate indoor conditions. Greater demands are placed on the microclimate. A powerful heating system is installed here, and it is also required to create protection against overheating in the summer months. For this reason, operating costs will be high. It will require significant energy resources to do this, since the area of ​​​​the premises of industrial structures is significant.
  • There is a large volume of air per square meter.
  • When calculating a one-story industrial building, a construction organization lays down significant costs for the creation of high-quality ventilation, proper lighting, heating and air conditioning. Particular attention is paid to the arrangement and maintenance of the roof. If a leak occurs, the product may be damaged.
  • Cleaning overhead lighting systems is quite difficult.

Despite a number of shortcomings, one-story industrial construction in the total mass is from 70 to 75% in different regions. Such designscommon in the sectors of metallurgy, heavy engineering, chemical, energy, food industries, etc. This is due to the versatility of such structures, their suitability for almost all types of production. The only exceptions are flotation plants, mills and other gravity facilities. Restrictions on the use of such objects can be caused mainly by the features of the terrain.

Varieties of designs

The frame of a one-story industrial building can be built according to different principles.

frame of a one-story industrial building

The following types of similar structures are distinguished:

  • Single span. This is one of the earliest variants of one-story industrial buildings. Today, the technology for the construction of such structures has become more perfect. This made it possible to expand the scope of single-span single-storey structures.
  • Multi-span. This type of industrial building appeared in 1880. At the end of the 19th century, the Moscow crane was invented, which made it possible to create such structures. Today, multi-span single-story structures are the predominant type of industrial buildings.
  • Cellular. This type of construction of a one-story industrial building is also called cellular. This is a relatively new direction in this category of construction. It appeared in the 40s of the last century. This was made possible by increased design possibilities as a result of the increasing level of technology needs.
  • Shed. This typestructures was designed specifically for industrial needs. It has a number of advantages over other types of buildings. Such projects of one-story industrial buildings allow more complete use of natural light in a wide continuous building. Today, it is shed structures that are the standard and recognized symbol of industrial buildings.
  • Monoblock plant. All warehouse, production, utility rooms in this design are interlocked.

Frame Varieties

Installation of one-story industrial buildings in most cases is carried out using frame technology. For this, rack-and-beam structures of a unified type are used. When creating single-span buildings, spacer (arched) and frame structures are often used.

installation of one-story industrial buildings

Vaults, domes, folds and shells are longitudinal and transverse structural elements. The supporting frame can be of three types:

  • reinforced concrete;
  • steel;
  • wooden.

Reinforced concrete structures of one-story industrial buildings are columns, and trusses and beams are made of steel or wood.

Sometimes the frame is made incomplete. The walls in this case are made of stone. Frame type is selected according to the following features:

  • span features;
  • load capacity and type of in-shop equipment;
  • degree of aggressiveness of the production environment;
  • fire safety requirements;
  • technicaleconomic indicators;
  • other.

When choosing materials, the size of the spans, the height of the building and the spacing of the columns are taken into account. The features of construction work depend on the nature of the loads acting on the frame. 60% of the total cost of construction is occupied by materials, their transportation to the construction site. Therefore, one of the main tasks facing modern industrial construction is to reduce the consumption of materials, as well as the weight of structures. For this reason, reinforced concrete single-story industrial buildings are gradually giving way to lighter steel frames.

Frame details

In the process of assembling the structures of one-story industrial buildings, builders assemble transverse and longitudinal structural elements. The first category includes columns, beams, arches, trusses, etc. Longitudinal elements are crane, foundation, strapping beams, truss structures, roofing and slabs.

construction of a one-story industrial building

Bearing structures can be made in the form of spatial schemes. These can be domes, arches, shells, etc. In this case, the frame elements can be both longitudinal and transverse elements.

If the frame has joists, it consists of transverse frames. Floor slabs are mounted on their crossbars. Frame frames are also assembled from vertical columns, horizontal beams. At the nodes they are connected to each other. Crossbars are needed to stiffen the structure in this direction. The slabs that make up the floors,vertical steel ties, crane beams also perform similar functions, but already in the longitudinal direction.

When designing a building, loads must be calculated. If they are significant in the horizontal direction, crossbars are mounted, which are rigidly fixed to the columns. Of these, longitudinal frame frames are formed. If a reinforced concrete frame is created, it does not use beam floors. It consists of vertical columns with capitals, as well as slabs resting on them.

Scope of application

A one-story industrial building has a certain scope, which depends on the structural features of the building. If you need a large production area without columns, choose a pavilion-type structure. These are versatile buildings with a flexible layout. This allows you to upgrade production, change its direction.

project of a one-story industrial building

Hall varieties of BHP allow you to place equipment more freely, provide more opportunities for process control. As a result, the operation of such an object will be cheaper. At the same time, an optimal microclimate and the best sanitary conditions are created inside the premises.

Multi-span single-story industrial buildings consist of parallel interior compartments. They are separated from each other by longitudinal columns. Some spans may rise above roof level. Depending on the type of technological processes, individual compartments can be separated by partitions. They serve at the same time.landmarks in the organization of internal space. This type of FPV is used for production lines with clear process flows. Overhead cranes can also be installed here.

Cell buildings for industrial use do not have clearly formed compartments. This is a massive building. Overhead cranes are not used. Intra-workshop transport can be either floor-mounted or suspended. The production area is versatile, can be used in various production processes.

Shedovye ORZ are wide solid buildings. From individual sheds spans are formed. Transport can only be floor. This type of building is suitable for industries with small height dimensions. Also in such rooms you can organize high-quality lighting.

One-piece buildings are used for small and medium-sized enterprises, sterile industries, as well as for multifunctional technological cycles.

Engineering systems

Construction of a one-story industrial building involves the arrangement of engineering systems. They ensure the normal functioning of the organization. For this, different communication systems are created. Engineering systems are selected and equipped in accordance with the needs of production. They can be external and internal.

reinforced concrete structures of one-story industrial buildings

The communication system is carefully thought out at the planning stage of the building. Schematically, the project indicates the location of external networks located outsidepremises. The location of internal engineering networks is also very accurately planned. Internal and external communications can be of the following type:

  • water supply;
  • sewerage;
  • heat supply;
  • heating;
  • ventilation;
  • air conditioning;
  • water disposal;
  • power supply.

Other specialized systems can be equipped. It depends on the type of production.

Water supply can be provided from the nearest reservoir or from the city network. The following units are responsible for the quality of water supply to the facility:

  • Pumping equipment for supplying and lifting water.
  • Filtration devices that clean the stream from unwanted impurities.
  • Storage tanks that allow you to create water reserves.

Water supply systems can have different purposes. They can be industrial, fire-fighting or combined. The production direction is necessary to meet the technical needs of production in water resources, as well as for washing, cooling during the manufacture of products.

Fire-fighting communications are laid in rooms where there is a risk of fire. The pressure of water in the event of a dangerous situation is created by pumps.

Combined systems are mounted in mixed-type enterprises. Drinking water is supplied to the enterprise, but it can also be used for technical purposes.

Heating systems

Heating communications in a one-story industrial building differ significantly fromresidential heating structures. This is due to the following features of the buildings:

  • significant ceiling height;
  • large floor area;
  • due to the installation of a powerful ventilation system, heat loss in production is higher;
  • heating system must comply with fire safety requirements;
  • quick build-up of temperature, which allows heating only during working hours.

Often, several types of heating are installed in the OPF at once. The ventilation system is often combined with heating. This is the most economical option. Also, a radiator system can be installed in each separate room. This allows you to maintain optimal temperature conditions at each production site.

Ventilation

The OPF ventilation system consists of local and general communications. If a large amount of dust and toxins are released during the production process, the hood is supplemented with special collections. Exhaust systems are located under the ceiling, since the highest concentration of harmful substances is determined in this part of the room. The air supply is from below the structure.

In addition to the hood, one of the prerequisites for many enterprises is the air conditioning system. For this, different equipment is used. It can be central, precision, multizone. Chillers or fan coil units can also be used.

Power supply

To equip a functional electrical system at the enterprise, the total load is calculated. Thiswork is carried out at the design stage of the building. To do this, determine the energy needs of production, as well as the amount of electricity that is spent during the maintenance of the building.

Next, the design and installation of high-voltage and low-voltage lines is carried out. This creates a wiring diagram. Its installation is carried out in accordance with building and fire safety requirements. It is extremely important to provide appropriate protective equipment in the system. Some businesses need to install a backup power supply. To do this, purchase a generator of appropriate power.

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