Floor tile options: description, photo

Repair 2022
Floor tile options: description, photo
Floor tile options: description, photo
Anonim

Floor installation materials are one of the most popular finishes. Not a single room can do without them, whether it is a production facility or a room in a residential apartment. Even in the technical back rooms, a special flooring is equipped for the convenience and long-term operation of the structure. In turn, floor tiles can be considered as the most reliable coating option, which is characterized by both high technical and physical qualities and an attractive decorative texture.

Characteristics of tile material

Floor tile dimensions

According to the main operational properties, this material occupies an average place between wall tiles and garden paving stones. Still, at home, lower hardness rates are required compared to outdoor coatings, but wear resistance should also be appropriate. At the same time, there arespecial types of floor tiles, endowed with special performance qualities. For example, in their product lines, manufacturers offer models with improved thermal and frost resistance. Separate series are available for laying in the kitchen and in the bathroom. In these rooms, it is important to protect the coating from moisture and chemical aggressive substances. Depending on the tile material, a special classification for moisture resistance may apply. Ceramics, for example, depending on the group, can absorb from 3 to 10% moisture.

Dimensional parameters are also important. In thickness, the tile can have from 5 to 20 mm on average. This indicator depends on the material of manufacture, and on the operating conditions. The thinner the flooring, the stiffer and stronger the material must be. For example, for porcelain stoneware, a thickness of 10-15 mm is considered optimal. In terms of length and width, 60 × 60 cm floor tiles are more often used - a kind of standard, optimal for laying in large living rooms and in the kitchen. If you wish, you can turn to extreme values ​​- from 20 × 20 to 150 × 150 cm. Manufacturers do not forget about rectangular shapes. Elongated tile slats in the format 40 × 60 or 150 × 300 cm find their place in corridors and staircases.

Ceramic tiles

This type of coating is associated with the decoration of the kitchen and bathroom, but on the walls. This is really not the most durable option for laying on the floor, but in some modifications it justifies itself in this capacity. There are different options for ceramic floor tiles, differing in the degree of abrasion. When considering labeling, please refer toattention to the PEI designation. For example, PEI I indicates the softness of the tile, so this option is not worth buying for laying on the floor. The optimal solution would be PEI V, indicating the solid structure of the material. By the way, the set of ceramic base components itself can be different. The traditional composition provides for the presence of clay, kaolin, spar and particles of quartz sand. Through industrial firing and special drying in chambers, a solid tile of a given shape is obtained. To increase the strength indicators, manufacturers make special additives and modifiers that allow the use of ceramics for floor installation.

Floor tiles

But, it would seem, why use a modified material if you can initially prepare a more resistant coating - for example, from stone or porcelain stoneware? The main advantages of ceramic floor tiles are the combination of at least medium strength and decorative appeal. This is not such a rough material as porcelain stoneware, it looks elegant, allows you to form precise patterns and patterns on the surface. By the way, according to the main shade, you can judge the grade of ceramic tiles. In particular, red indicates belonging to the first grade, blue - to the second, and greenish - to the third. The first group should be preferred due to higher quality, although such products are more expensive.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tiles

This is not exactly a tile in the traditional sense, because the structure is based on a non-solid material likeclay after heat treatment, and an elastic polyurethane layer. The top layer is a form with a pattern, and the shell is endowed with the necessary protective qualities. In terms of its technical and physical qualities, PVC floor tiles are more like linoleum or carpet, but tensile strength and structure maintenance even under conditions of intensive use put this material in the same group even with ceramics. However, there are significant differences in size. This is a thin tile material with a thickness of 0.5-4 mm. Single-layer sheets of rectangular and square shapes made of polyvinyl chloride and do not at all exceed 2.5 mm in thickness. But there are practically no restrictions in width and length.

Vinyl floor tiles

The advantages of such tiles include ease of physical handling and ease of laying on glue. The only caveat is the high requirements for the rough surface on which it is planned to use this coating. Nevertheless, the elasticity and thin base make it possible to lay only on even surfaces without serious defects. For comparison: stone and clay panels can also be laid on problematic surfaces - all flaws are hidden with a cement or polymer mortar for installation. In the case of PVC, a thin adhesive layer is used that will not hide serious damage. On the other hand, floor tiles of this type can be laid on the base of heating mats or heating systems with water circuits. The material withstands thermal loads, contributing to the optimal distribution of thermal radiation.

Stonetile

We are talking about natural minerals, and not about artificial imitation. Stone tiles have a lot of advantages: from high strength to natural texture, but in choosing it is important to take into account the breed, which can have its own pronounced features:

  1. Granite. Natural tile is associated with granite, but it should be purchased for laying a house only if the natural pattern meets the design requirements. The fact is that the distinctive features of this stone in the form of increased wear resistance and tolerance to aggressive environments are relevant when laying in public places, but living conditions are not so destructive for the structure of the coating, and the price tag of the material will be increased in any case.
  2. Marble. Such tiles are less durable due to the porous non-solid structure. Nevertheless, marble will come in handy for a kitchen or bathroom - especially since it has a special texture with a touch of nobility.
  3. Sandstone. If the drawing is put at the forefront, then you should focus on the floor tiles made of this stone. In terms of the variety of natural patterns and patterns, it has no equal - the main thing is that the specific “image” fits into the interior of the target installation site.
  4. Onyx. In its texture, this stone resembles marble, but in a more elegant design. Onyx tiles in light colors are more often used in bathroom decoration, but the durability of the rock takes the possibilities of using its derivatives far beyond this room.
Stone floor tiles

Porcelain stoneware tiles

The combination of clay raw materials and stone chips made it possible to obtain an average material in terms of technical and operational characteristics, which, moreover, has decorative properties. This is a universal tile covering that can be used not only at home, but also in the garden when organizing paths. Although the colors of porcelain stoneware floor tiles are not as varied as in the case of tiles or even vinyl, the presence of natural components still gives a feeling of naturalness and nobility of shades. As for outdoor use, this material is not afraid of extreme temperatures and frosts. Often, stairs and terraces are decorated with the help of porcelain stoneware.

The main problem when using this tile is the complexity of processing. It will not be possible to obtain fragments that are suitable in shape without the use of special equipment or tools. At home, for these purposes, use an angle grinder (grinder) with a diamond disc. This disadvantage is compensated by a modest cost. Very cheap floor tiles are made from porcelain stoneware, the cost of which is 300-400 rubles/m2. For comparison, the average price tags of analogues made of ceramics and PVC range from 500 to 600 rubles/m2.

Metal tiles

A type of coating for industrial use, focused on laying in critical functional areas. The features of metal tiles include the presence of ribs and perforations. These design differences are designed to increase the coupling with wheeled vehicles. Usually such flooring is laid on the entrances towarehouse and industrial premises, that is, during their operation, mainly load-loading machines move along them. Accordingly, the floor tiles on the metal floor are laid with the expectation of high loads. Therefore, a special hardened steel with a stainless coating is used as the basis for the manufacture of the material. The differences from the tiled materials discussed above include a wide release format. Standard sizes are 200x200 and 300x300mm, although the thickness rarely exceeds 2mm.

Varieties of the texture of tiled materials

Porcelain stoneware floor tiles

Traditional series are made in different colors, with drawings, patterns and frames. Depending on the chosen texture, it is possible to form both neutral compositions and plot "canvases" assembled by separate mosaic fragments. In the bathroom and in the kitchen, pastel colors of floor tiles are more often used - light tones of blue, lilac, green and pink. To add contrast to the edges, you can make framing lines with pronounced accents of a certain color.

Recently, floorings with imitation of the appearance of other materials are gaining popularity. Tiles are made with the texture of wood, leather, stone, metal and even glass. In some models, the texture design emphasizes the look of a particular pattern. For example, wood effect floor tiles with pronounced rings can be rough, while glossy marble effect tiles with polishing can be smooth, respectively. A special place in modern tile familiestakes 3D technology. With its help, an image of a three-dimensional three-dimensional image is formed on the floor, which can be amortized in perception when walking. Such material is also called a stereo image. Of course, it is not cheap, but in terms of visual effect it has practically no equal competitors.

Tile selection rules

Outdoor floor tiles

The definition of requirements should be based on the purpose of the premises. The corridor, the bathroom with the kitchen, the living room and the adjacent territory to the house (porch, terrace, steps) differ fundamentally in the nature of operation. The difference will be in terms of strength, wear resistance, design value and technical and physical data. For example, floor tiles with a thickness of about 5-10 mm are suitable for laying in the bathroom, where minimal loads are expected. But in this case, it will be important to take into account the presence of an anti-slip effect with moisture resistance. That is, it is desirable to select a tile with a protective matte finish. The adhesive surface is also important for porcelain stoneware with stone tiles, which is planned for flooring in front of the house. In winter, freezing of surfaces can lead to the formation of frost, so a rough texture and, in principle, the ability of the material to withstand extreme cold will be appropriate.

As far as style is concerned, only in rare cases can it be ignored. Even inconspicuous garden tiles for paths are selected taking into account their visual organicity at the entrance to the local design composition. Of course, white floor tiles will in any caseout of place in this place and is more suitable for styling in the same bathroom. But gloomy gray tones are completely optional for utilitarian zones. You can use imitation tiles, the visual image of which will emphasize the style of a particular interior or landscape design.

Laying tiles

To begin with, the rough surface is brought into proper form. It may be different. Ideally, a flat concrete base, but in principle, the use of old decorative surfaces is also allowed. It is important that the coating does not have weak areas and delaminations. For example, how to lay floor tiles on a base made of a similar material? If there are pronounced defects and irregularities on the surface, then it is advisable to use a leveling or priming mixture. But before that, the old tile is cleaned and washed with an alkaline solution.

At the next stage, the optimal tool for bonding the decorative coating with the rough base is selected. You can use special adhesives, some self-leveling models with dual function (leveling and hitching) and traditional cement mortars. Thin elements are seated on the glue - for example, floor tiles of small thickness. If we are talking about porcelain stoneware, then it is better to use a self-leveling or cement mixture. Heavy slabs laid on cement mortar.

Before direct laying, the working platform is marked in rows. Their contours can be pre-marked with a rope, drawing it along the entire length of the direction. Next, the solution is laid using a toothedspatula. The mixture should be applied evenly and with a slight rib, which will improve adhesion. When installing large stone and porcelain stoneware slabs, use a level and a mallet. These tools will allow you to accurately adjust the position of the element. At the final stage, the joints are grouted, after which the coating can be left to dry for about 24 hours.

Laying floor tiles

Conclusion

Decoration of the floor with high-quality tiles solves several problems at once in the arrangement of the room. Firstly, in this way a smooth and reliable surface is arranged that can withstand heavy physical exertion. Secondly, tiles can also act as a full-fledged decorative element in interior decoration. The performance of both tasks will depend on how correctly the choice of material and its installation was made. Last but not least is the choice of manufacturer. The most reliable factories include Imola, Gomez, Gambarelli, etc. Keramin floor tiles are also in high demand, the assortment of which is divided into several classes depending on the purpose. Thus, fans of the brand can find special categories of material for the sanitary area, porcelain stoneware for surfaces with medium loads and high-strength panels for outdoor use.

In many ways, the purpose with the technical characteristics and performance properties determines the cost. The average range can be defined by the borders from 300 to 600 rubles/m2. As already mentioned, porcelain stoneware offers the most affordable tiled products.Tiles are similar to it, the cost of which is 400-500 rubles / m 2 . The most expensive tile options are made of stone and PVC. In these segments, price tags can reach 1500 rubles/m2. But these are already specialized versions, provided with modern plasticizers and all kinds of functional additives that increase the operational properties of the coating.

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