For several centuries, the Japanese chrysanthemum has been very popular with professional gardeners and florists. These plants bloom quite early, they are unpretentious in care, and also help to give the garden an original, more attractive look.
Chrysanthemum has a rounded regular shape of the bush and many small inflorescences. They are distinguished by a variety of shapes and shades, which is why they can become a real decoration of the garden.
The history of the emergence of flower culture
Chrysanthemum is native to Southeast Asia, where this plant has been known since ancient times. This is evidenced by numerous legends, legends and interesting facts about these flowers. They played a particularly prominent role in the culture of China and Japan.
Japanese chrysanthemums, whose photos show all their peculiarity, brightness and attractiveness, are very popular not only in the Land of the Rising Sun, but throughout Europe. ATIn Japan, these flowers appeared in the 4th century and quickly spread there. They began to call them "kiku", which means "sun". The country began to cultivate new varieties of chrysanthemums of different shapes and colors.
In the 10th century, Emperor Uda opened the first exhibition of the most beautiful chrysanthemums in the gardens of his palace in Tokyo. Then such exhibitions became a tradition, and the chrysanthemum festival in Japan became an annual event.
Writers, craftsmen and poets paid much attention to the plant and assigned a special place in their work. Numerous literary works, scientific works, haiku couplets have survived to this day. A special place is occupied by the chrysanthemum in Japanese painting, so you can see the flower on various engravings. This indicates the importance of the plant for the culture of Japan.
Since 797, the Japanese chrysanthemum has been adorning the coat of arms of this country, depicted on coins and the highest order. In the past, the flower was depicted on samurai helmets, which symbolizes the rising sun.
In 1888, the "Order of the Chrysanthemum" was established in Japan. It was awarded to 100 people, which speaks of the value of this award. This flower has many different signs and superstitions.
The meaning of chrysanthemum
Japanese chrysanthemums are considered a symbol of the sun. This flower denotes the rapid flow of life, its value and fragility. In addition, it is considered a symbol of long life.
A strong and flowering bush on the windowsill is considered an indicator of an emotionally stable atmosphere in the apartment. This plant helps to keepmarried couple understanding and love. In any case, the chrysanthemum will become a true decoration of the garden and home, and it also has useful properties.
Features of the flower
The plant was brought to Europe from the Far East, where it was treated with special respect. Chrysanthemum almost immediately became a real decoration of the autumn garden.
This is a herbaceous ornamental plant up to 1.5 meters high, which can grow both outdoors and at home in a pot. The rhizome is thickened, sometimes completely woody, often branched, releasing shoots underground. Inflorescences can be small or large in various shades. The aroma of chrysanthemum is rich, specific, wormwood, but some varieties are distinguished by a subtle, delicate and spicy smell. Reproduction is carried out by seeds or cuttings.
There are many different shapes and types of chrysanthemums. This plant often becomes a collector's item for many gardeners.
According to the system developed by scientists of the Imperial Park, in Japan, chrysanthemums are primarily divided into wild and cultivated. Cultivars are divided into decorative and edible. Decorative are divided by flowering time into:
Autumn chrysanthemums are the largest group of plants in terms of number, which is mainly grown in the country. It includes small-flowered, medium-flowered and large-flowered species. Small color diameterJapanese chrysanthemums do not exceed 9 cm. Terry - miniature plants with a basket diameter of up to 3 cm, with an awn-shaped inflorescence, which in their shape resemble a fish tail. According to the number of rows of reed rims, they are eight-layered.
Medium-flowered chrysanthemums are plants with a diameter of 9-18 cm. They consist of reed flowers with flat or tubular corollas. This category also includes flowers for special purposes, such as those intended for religious purposes.
Large-flowered chrysanthemums in Japan include varieties with inflorescences with a diameter of more than 18 cm with flat or tubular corollas. Depending on the diameter of the corolla tube, they are divided into thin-tubular, medium-tubular and thick-tubular.
How to choose the right seedlings?
Golden Japanese chrysanthemums, the photo of which allows you to appreciate their beauty and peculiarity of the flower, look great on a garden bed, at home on a windowsill, in winter gardens and bouquets. In addition, they can be used for culinary purposes, as young inflorescences are quite edible.
Now seedlings of different varieties of chrysanthemums are on sale almost all year round. In the Russian latitudes, perennial Japanese chrysanthemums, which are frost-resistant, have gained particular popularity.
To grow a strong and he althy plant, you need to choose the right seedlings. When buying them, you need to pay attention not only to the general appearance, but also to the quality and quantity of buds. They should begin to open up and show the tips of the petals. Only in suchcase, after planting in the soil, the chrysanthemum will definitely bloom. If the plant was purchased with green buds, the flowers may not open.
Growing from seeds
Recently, golden Japanese chrysanthemums have gained particular popularity. They bloom profusely, decorative and very beautiful. There is absolutely no difficulty in growing them from seeds. Sowing is carried out directly on the flower bed or by growing seedlings.
Seeds are sown in the flower bed from mid-May. This method is suitable for almost all types of annual chrysanthemums. For this you need:
- dig holes 35 cm apart;
- put 2 seeds each;
- sprinkle with earth and cover with foil to keep warm.
When the very first shoots appear, you need to remove the film, and after 7 days fertilize. When the plants are about 7-12 cm tall, thin them out.
You can plant flowers, having previously grown seedling material. In this case, chrysanthemums begin to bloom earlier. Seeds are sown in late February or early March. For this you need:
- pour drainage into shallow boxes;
- fill with soil mixture;
- moisturize a little;
- distribute seeds evenly;
- sprinkle with earth on top, layer up to 1 cm;
- sprinkle a little water, cover with glass or film.
Place the seed container in a place where the temperature is at least 24 degrees. Boxes with seedlings need to be ventilated periodically. After 10-14 daysRemove the film and put the containers in a bright place. After the appearance of the first 4-6 leaves, thin out the plants. In May, after the first frosts have passed, plant them in flower beds.
Where and how to plant?
In order for the plant to be strong and strong, you need to know how to grow Japanese chrysanthemums. The flower requires a sunny place, as well as well-drained neutral or slightly acidic soil. In low light, the shoots are strongly stretched and thinner, and flowering is late.
Chrysanthemums love well-fertilized soils. On such soil they bloom very magnificently. If the soil in the garden is not fertile enough, then before planting the cuttings, you need to make:
- rotten manure;
- complex mineral fertilizer.
Chrysanthemum cuttings are best planted not in holes, but in a trench at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other. It depends on the size of the plant and the main features of the variety. After planting, you need to water the soil in the trench with a solution of Kornevin (1 g of product per 1 liter of water). This contributes to the formation of a more powerful root system. As a result, a beautiful and strong plant will develop from a young twig.
Seedlings should be covered with light material from above. It will create the most favorable microclimate. The film will help protect the plant from direct sunlight and warm during the cold season.
Features of flower care
Growing a Japanese chrysanthemum is not a hassle, as it is very easy to care for the flower. Since chrysanthemums are planted in the spring, thenYou need to shade them a little from the scorching sun. To do this, you need to use non-woven material. It is positioned so that the fabric does not touch the leaves.
Chrysanthemum should be watered often, as it is moisture-loving. For irrigation, settled or rain water is better suited. If this is not possible, then a little ammonia should be added to ordinary tap water to make it softer.
If chrysanthemum bushes grow in partial shade, then you may have to adjust the shape of the plant. Immediately after planting, the top of the sprouts is pinched, and after 3 weeks the procedure is repeated.
Japanese white chrysanthemums do not fertilize in the year of planting. In the future, it is recommended to apply fertilizer 2 times per season, namely, at the initial stage of the growing season and when laying buds.
Chrysanthemum loves organic and mineral complex fertilizers. During the flowering period, phosphorus-potassium supplements are required. It is necessary to water chrysanthemums with fertilizer only under the root, as if they get on the leaves they will cause a burn.
It is very good to use rotted mullein or chicken manure for dressing, which must first be diluted with water. Before fertilizing, the soil needs to be slightly moistened. You can use ready-made granular fertilizers based on chicken manure or manure.
Diseases and pests
Golden Japanese chrysanthemums suffer from diseases. This is mainly due to improper fit and care. It may be insufficient watering, an incorrectly selected site.and errors in soil preparation. If the chrysanthemum flowers have become smaller, and the leaves have begun to wither, then you need to transplant it to another place.
For a plant, aphids and spider mites are especially dangerous pests. To kill aphids, bushes should be washed with soapy water, repeating the treatment every 7-10 days. The treatment of the plant with a solution of "Pyrethrum" helps well. In the fight against aphids and spider mites, an infusion of garlic has proven itself well.
Chrysanthemum itself is an amazing plant, as it can act as an texicidal agent. It helps in the fight against the bear, as the flowers and leaves contain a special essential oil with a specific smell.
The best way to propagate chrysanthemums is the division of the rhizome, as this will preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant. After a few years, it has rather dense shoots and stops a little in development, which means it loses its decorative qualities. This means that it's time to update the flower.
The best time to do this is in the spring when the bush is ready to be planted. To do this, divide the plant into several equal parts. The place of the cut must be immediately sprinkled with ash so that the chrysanthemum does not get infected. If you need to get several shoots, then cuttings are ideal for this.
Before the plant begins to bloom, you need to cut off dense branches and lower them into water or wet sand. After a few days, such cuttings will take root, andthey can be transplanted into fertile soil.
Preparing for wintering
It is important not only to know how to grow chrysanthemums, but also how to keep them until spring. Bushes need to be dug up annually for the winter and planted in soil mixed with sand, sawdust and peat. This will better retain moisture. After that, you need to take the plant to a cool place.
In warm regions, you can leave chrysanthemums to winter in flower beds. To do this, before the onset of cold weather, it is recommended to cut the stems of flowers to 10-15 cm and sprinkle their roots with a thick layer of organic mulch.
Growing at home
Looking at a photo of a bouquet of golden Japanese chrysanthemums, you can say for sure that these are just excellent flowers that can be a decoration for your home. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, they can be grown on windows. Caring for them is quite simple and for this you need to remember that chrysanthemums:
- love fresh air;
- prefer coolness;
- love spraying;
- require regular feeding.
Be sure to remove faded flowers in a timely manner so that the plant does not lose its decorative qualities. A young plant needs to be transplanted once a year, and an adult - 2 times a year.
Following all these simple rules for growing chrysanthemums, you can get a he althy and strong plant with lush flowering.