Wood is often used for interior decoration. She has a lot of positive qualities. This is a very beautiful material, and the interior in which it is used looks stylish, impressive and noble. At the same time, wood trim is versatile, easily fitting into almost any style of interior.
Very often in apartments and houses they make a wooden floor. At the same time, there are several options for its device, laying methods, and insulating materials. How to create and repair a wooden floor, we will consider later in the article.
Types of wood flooring
The wooden floor in an apartment or a private house looks spectacular. This coating is practical and durable.
There are several options for finishing the floor with natural material:
- These are boards made of wood, which differ in production technology, installation and performance. One of the most popular types of flooring materials is parquet board -durable material that looks luxurious and rich. However, this type of boards is rather capricious in care, but installation does not cause any particular difficulties.
- The second finishing option is a grooved board. It has special grooves for connection along all sides. They are called "castles". With this method of joining the panels, there are no gaps in the wooden floor. It turns out a monolithic finish. It is important that in the future the distance between the boards will also not increase, and they will not “walk”, creak. This is one of the most practical types of wood flooring, and it is also quite easy to maintain. Since there are no gaps, debris and dust do not accumulate in them.
- Another option for finishing the floor is a deck board. It does not have locks, so small gaps remain between the individual strips. But this material is resistant to various adverse effects. It can be laid even in the bathroom, bath or kitchen. Temperature fluctuations and high humidity are not terrible for this floor. Another advantage of this material is its resistance to the development of fungus and mold, since the boards are treated with antiseptics during the production process. Most deck boards are made from larch.
- It is impossible not to mention the engineering two-layer board. She has a decorative top layer. The lower one serves to strengthen the structure. It is durable and practical material.
How to choose material?
How to make a wooden floor? This question interests many owners of apartments and private houses. Before considering the nuancesinstallation, you need to pay attention to the quality of the material itself. The ease of laying the boards, as well as the durability of the finish, will depend on this.
Material, which is of high quality, will be resistant to scratches, chips, darkening on the surface. Also, it should not be deformed if water accidentally gets on the surface. Wood must be resistant to the development of fungus and mold.
In order for the floor finish to meet all the requirements, you need to purchase boards from certain types of wood. They are created from both coniferous and hardwood. They differ in a number of technical characteristics:
- Experts say that one of the best options for arranging the floor is oak. This is quite an expensive material. It is distinguished by high strength, noble texture and specific brown color. This material resists the development of fungus well. At the same time, oak is not afraid of moisture and absorbs it rather slowly. You can always have time to collect water if something accidentally spills in the room.
- Since oak is expensive, not everyone can buy it. But an ash board is quite capable of replacing this type of wood. Its appearance is very similar to oak, and at the same time the material has good resistance to various adverse effects. The cost of finishing from ash will be an order of magnitude lower than oak.
- Wood flooring is rarely made from beech. This material absorbs moisture and can warp. It is better to purchase a larch board. She is somewhat inferioroak in terms of strength, but in other respects it even surpasses the classic material for flooring. Larch is not afraid of moisture.
- No less often do the floor of pine. This material is relatively inexpensive, but it is inferior in strength to larch, ash and oak.
Gluing the floor
If the base of wooden floors is even, made of concrete, you can apply the simplest method of arranging the finish. It is suitable for a new building or a private house where a cement screed was recently made. In this case, you can glue the boards directly to the base. The floor level in this case will rise minimally.
The advantage of this laying method is the relatively low cost. The amount of materials that will be required for installation will be minimal. Even a novice master can lay the board in this way (provided that the base is really perfectly even). Another important advantage is the fact that in this case it will be possible to install a warm electric floor system under the floor covering.
To mount the flooring from the boards, you need:
- Apply a layer of water-repellent adhesive to a clean screed.
- A layer of polyethylene film is laid on top. Waterproofing must be at least 1 mm thick. If the polyethylene is thinner, several layers will be required. The waterproofing must extend over the walls.
- After that, another layer of glue is applied. Parquet is installed on it. It is betteruse grooved boards in this case. Their fixation will be stronger. The surface is then finished.
However, it is worth considering that if there are irregularities and level differences of more than 3 mm for every 2 m², this mounting option will not work, such a coating will quickly wear out and deform. Repair of wooden floors in this case will need to be done very soon.
It is also worth considering that a self-leveling mortar cannot be poured onto a cement screed. The adhesive may not be compatible with such material. If the master does not have sufficient experience in carrying out such work, the floor will be less reliable if it is based on a self-leveling mortar.
Quite often, thermal insulation is used when installing a wooden floor finish. This material is also an additional sound insulation. Insulation of a wooden floor allows you to make its operation more comfortable. The steps will not be so booming, it will be possible to step on the surface quietly, and the coating will be warmer when using this installation method. You will need to spend less money on your family budget to pay energy bills in winter.
In this case, roll or sheet materials can act as thermal insulation. It is best to choose foil insulation or technical cork panels for these purposes. They have a minimum thickness, which will allow you to minimally raise the level of the base.
Cork is a natural material. Its applicationwelcomed by builders more, but the cost of this material is quite high. Roll heaters are cheaper. They may have a base made of foamed polyethylene or rubber. The second option is preferable. The base of the roll in this case is black. Such thermal insulation is far ahead of cork insulation, retaining heat indoors much better.
Insulation of a wooden floor is laid in the space between the film and the boards:
- First, you need to lay a plastic film at least 1 mm thick on the prepared floor.
- Next, glue is applied to it.
- Spread sheets of insulation on it.
- When the fixing composition dries, you can start finishing the floor with a board.
This laying method is also only suitable for flat ground.
Leveling the floor with plywood
You can equip a wooden floor without a screed. If the base is made of old boards, they can not be removed. In this case, plywood is used. The named technique is also suitable for uneven cement bases. The thickness of the plywood should be large enough - no less than the layer of the board itself. You can use thin sheets that will fit in two layers. You can also use material such as OSB instead of plywood.
- First, you should clean the base of the floor from construction debris.
- Old boards need to be soaked with an antibacterial compound.
- When the base is dry, you can get to work. First, a layer of waterproofing is installed. He should go to the walls.
- Sheets of plywood are fixed with glue on a concrete base. If the bottom layer is made of boards, it is better to use self-tapping screws for fastening.
- If the plywood sheets are thin, line the first layer of boards first.
- Panels are mounted on top of it, but already with a shift. This allows you to make the base structure stronger. Even significant irregularities can be removed using this method.
This wood floor arrangement is one of the best options if the base is uneven. A primer for glue is applied to the plywood. When it dries, you can start laying the boards on a special fixing compound.
If we compare the method of laying the floor with a special leveling compound and the use of plywood, the second option will be much cheaper. This technique is used if the floor level differences do not exceed 1 cm. In this case, it will be possible to level the floor not only in one room, but also in other residential premises.
Structure on lags
More difficult is the arrangement of the wooden floor on the logs. This method is the only possible option for finishing the base with level differences of more than 1 cm. Logs are most often equipped in private houses or apartments with high ceilings. This design will significantly reduce the height of the room. At the same time, the cost of finishing will be higher than in previous installation options:
- First, a layer of waterproofing is laid on the prepared base.
- Lags are mounted on it. To do this, use a beam with a cross section of 5 × 10 cm. It must be installed onwaterproofing in increments of 50-60 cm.
- The logs are fixed with screws.
- A layer of thermal insulation is laid between the lags. It is best to use mineral wool for these purposes. It is an environmentally friendly material that is not subject to rotting and burning.
- Plywood is laid on top. Its thickness must be at least 22 mm. Sheets are fixed with screws to wooden beams.
- Next, the plywood is coated with a primer for glue. A fixative must be applied on top.
- And finally, the boards are mounted.
The wooden floor in the apartment, which is mounted on logs, allows you to create a warm floor. At the same time, it will be perfectly even.
The wooden floor installation may involve the use of a "floating" technique. To do this, you will need to purchase a substrate, waterproofing and, in fact, the boards themselves. And the adhesive composition in this case is not used. The boards do not have a strong adhesion to the base of the room, as well as its walls. Therefore, such coverage is called floating.
- First, waterproofing is laid on the leveled floor.
- Next, thermal insulation is mounted (cork sheets or roll insulation).
- A wooden board is laid on it. Panels must be grooved. And their design should have a special type of fastening "thorn-groove". This will ensure that the material is firmly fixed even without the use of glue.
This type of mounting is one of the easiest. The work can be donegood even for a beginner. It should be noted that the cost of this type of flooring will be much less than the option with the use of glue. Installation will not require much effort and time.
When considering how to lay a wooden floor using the "floating" technique, you need to consider that this type of finish requires a flat base. Even minor differences are not allowed. When choosing a heater, you need to give preference to dense materials. In this case, even polystyrene foam may be suitable. However, its thickness will be greater than that of rolled heaters. The presence of a layer of expanded polystyrene will allow the structure to be more rigidly fixed to the base. In the room where the "floating" floor was assembled, it is impossible to install overall furniture.
Finishing the floor
After the floor is assembled, it must be sanded with a disk machine. This is an expensive finish, but it allows you to achieve high quality. After it, you can varnish the surface. The floor will look interesting and luxurious, as this finish allows you to emphasize the natural texture of natural wood.
Tinted and clear nail polishes are available. This will give the floor the desired look. You can also use stains. In addition, the surface is artificially aged, which is done manually by the craftsman.
If the floor is old, it may need restoration. In this case, paint for a wooden floor is used. You can pick up any shade and give it a second life, as the paint can hide various defects. To coverwell laid down on the material, you need to adhere to the established painting technology:
- First, oil is applied to the surface. It dries within 3 days.
- Then apply the first coat of the chosen paint. It needs to dry.
- You will need to apply one or even two more layers. It will take about 5 days for all three coats to dry.
- Wood floor paint needs additional fixing. It is varnished. This will prevent premature abrasion of the decorative coating.
- You can use special oils for these purposes. They also provide additional protection to the painted surface. This gives the floor a glossy sheen.
After laying the floor or in the process of its restoration, the surface is polished. For this, special equipment is used. Previously, the so-called scraping of a wooden floor was performed. It was manual or machine processing, which made it possible to level the surface of the board. However, this was a rough treatment, and today this method is practically not used by craftsmen.
The scraping of a wooden floor was replaced by such a technique as grinding. It made it possible to achieve finer processing of the material. Today, two types of equipment are used in the grinding process, and drum processing of a wooden board will cost much less. Such equipment is used if you need to sand a large floor area.
True, drum grinding has a number of disadvantages. The device is not able to create an even coating onthe entire surface of the room. Even a master with extensive experience will not be able to achieve the perfect result. Therefore, drum sanders today are more suitable for removing old paint and rough finishes.
Disk grinders demonstrate excellent results. They allow you to qualitatively and finely process a wooden surface. Even a worn board takes on a spectacular appearance after such processing. Therefore, it is recommended to use expensive but high-quality equipment during the restoration process.
Over time, all owners need to repair their wooden floors. First you need to tap the boards with a hammer. If a dull sound is detected on some strips, this indicates the presence of decay processes inside the material. These boards will need to be replaced. In this case, they are dismantled and new strips from the array, treated with an antiseptic, are installed.
If cracks appear in the wooden floor, they need to be repaired with special compounds that can be purchased at a hardware store.
Before starting work, you need to take the furniture out of the room. The cracks are thoroughly cleaned. It is necessary to highlight the places that need restoration. They are processed with a composition. Then, after drying, the surface is treated with sandpaper. You can also eliminate creaking by strengthening the fixation of the boards.
By considering the installation and restoration of a wooden floor, you can achieve the perfect finish. All stages of work, if desired, can be done by hand.