Installation of electricians in the house and apartment

Installation of electricians in the house and apartment
Installation of electricians in the house and apartment
Anonim

Wiring for an electrician just starting his career is a real headache. Such work requires a competent approach, the wiring diagram must be developed and thought out in advance to ensure maximum convenience for the residents of the premises. It is with the laying of the electrical cable that the overhaul of the home begins.

electrical installation

Laying electrical cables in a residential area

Installation of electricians in the house begins with the laying of wires in the walls, then they should be closed under a thick layer of putty. At the final stage, the walls are covered with wallpaper. Inside, electrical wires will rest for several decades, so before installing electrical wiring, you should correctly develop an electrical circuit.

Getting Started

home electrical installation

Replacing or laying electrical wires from scratch always begins with the development of a plan that takes into account the location of sockets, switches and lighting fixtures. For this we need:

  • sheet of paper;
  • ruler;
  • pen;
  • colored pencils.

On paper, you should draw up a general plan of the room, indicate the location of doorwaysand windows. Then it is necessary to think over on the diagram where the furniture will be located in the renovated room, and indicate this on the plan. After such a simple action, it will be easier to understand where you need to install sockets for household appliances. It is also necessary to indicate on the floor plan the location of chandeliers, switches and other lighting fixtures.

Hidden and outdoor wiring in rooms

electrical installation in the apartment

What is hidden wiring? Such installation of electricians in a private house or apartment is carried out in voids, channels, strobes. After that, the wires are hidden under a layer of plaster. If the materials in contact with them are highly flammable, then the cables must be in a protective metal tube, which in the event of an emergency can contain the fire.

Outdoor wiring type mounted along the wall. The wires are fastened with special fasteners or are located inside cable channels, in a corrugation or a metal hose.

Modern three-wire power grid

electrical wiring installation

According to the rules of electrical safety, all wiring in a residential area must be three-wire, consisting of phase (L), zero (N) and ground (PE). Wires may only be used with copper conductors. If the old house has not been overhauled for a long time, then for sure it has outdated two-wire aluminum wiring. The old cable should be pulled out of the channels in the wall, then a new modern power supply system should be installed.

List of cable routing tools

To work on the installation of electricians, we need the following tools and materials:

  1. A corrugated pipe that protects the cable from damage and the room from fire in the event of a short circuit.
  2. Electric cable.
  3. Boxes for cable branching.
  4. Roulette.
  5. Putty.
  6. Sockets and switches.
  7. Level and rule for leveling the walls after laying the wire.
  8. Stroborez.
  9. Punch.
  10. Hammer.
  11. Chisel.
  12. Cutting pliers or knife for removing the protective coating from the cable.
  13. Phillips screwdriver.
  14. Voltage indicator.

Safety while doing work

electrical installation in a private house

During the installation of electricians in an apartment or a private house, precautions should be taken. First, do not connect the cable to the network while working on it. Second, you must wear protective gear:

  1. Glasses to protect the eyes while chasing walls.
  2. Respirator.
  3. Rubber gloves to protect against electric shock.

Indoor wiring rules

Strobes are allowed only horizontally or vertically. If the wall or partition has a thickness of less than 100 mm, then it is forbidden to make vertical strobes closer than 200 mm from the edge of the wall. The distance between wire ducts on the same wall must exceed 1500 mm. The corrugation should be chosen with such a diameter that it is several times larger than the diametercable.

Marking the wall for chasing

house electrical installation

Taking a pencil, draw the places where you plan to install sockets, switches and junction boxes. Then you should mark the places where the strobes will be made, while it is better to use the level to accurately draw the lines horizontally and vertically.

Drilling the wall

Using a punch with a special nozzle, make recesses for sockets and switches, as well as holes for installing junction boxes.

Preparing walls for wiring

Between the recesses for sockets and switches, make channels using a wall chaser. Such holes should be made so that the corrugated pipe fits easily into the groove completely. The wiring must not protrude beyond the groove. After working with a power tool, grooves should be made using a chisel and a hammer. Be sure to remove the resulting dust from the walls and floor before the next operation.

Wiring

Lay the corrugation with the wires inside the prepared strobes, and then putty the walls and level them with the rule. Then you need to proceed with the installation of branching boxes.

Be sure to remove the top cover before starting work. In the wall, such material is fixed with a small amount of putty. Once the box is securely attached to the wall, insert the tubes into the box and secure with angled nails.

During the operation of the building, an open circuit in the electrical wiring inside the building may occur.If junction boxes were not used during wiring, it will be much more difficult to find a break. If they were nevertheless installed, then the damaged wire is easy to calculate and replace with a serviceable one. There is no need to peel off the wallpaper and break the walls again.

Putting holes

After the successful installation of electricians in a private house or apartment, proceed to puttying the walls. After the required amount of building material has been applied, the holes are smeared, remove excess mortar with a trowel and level the wall with a rule. Check the work done by applying a level to the wall.

Options for connecting wires in the junction box

During the installation of electricians in a cottage or any other building, it is required to twist the wires with each other in accordance with the uniform rules of the PUE. There are total 3 types of cable connections:

  1. Using terminal blocks. This is the most preferred option, since such devices are small in size, they can easily fit into a small wire management box.
  2. Connecting electrical wires using the soldering method. This method is used by professionals of the old school. To solder wires together, you need to have sufficient experience in carrying out such a procedure.
  3. Crimp connection is the most reliable method. However, this is a time-consuming process that will require skills and knowledge from an electrician. You will also need a special tool called "press tongs", and additional materials: a sleeve made of conductive metal (usually copper or aluminum),as well as a tube for heat shrinkage. To connect the wires with this method, it is necessary to insert the stripped cables into the sleeve on both sides until they stop, and then crimp them from the outside with the help of pliers. Before crimping, it is necessary to put a special protective tube on one of the wires. After the crimping process, you need to slide the tube onto the sleeve, then heat it to the desired temperature for heat shrinkage to occur.

Protection against electric shock in the house

During the installation of electricians in the room, in addition to automatic machines, it is necessary to think about installing an RCD fire-fighting device with a leakage current of 100 mA. In rooms with an increased amount of moisture (bathroom, kitchen), it is necessary to install an RCD with a leakage current of up to 30 mA.

During work related to electricity in residential premises, only high-quality wires should be used, such as the VVGng cable and its modifications.

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