Parquet floors are a beautiful solution for the interior of any room. At the same time, high requirements are imposed on them in terms of aesthetics, sanitary and hygienic standards and thermal and sound insulation. As a rule, the use of this flooring material is advisable not only in residential buildings, but also in educational institutions, theaters, museums, sanatoriums.
What are the features?
The main advantages of parquet floors are their beautiful appearance and durability of the coating. They are also characterized by minimal sound transmission and thermal conductivity. But parquet floors are not easy to install, as they are subject to high requirements in terms of evenness, smoothness and surface strength.
Each type of parquet consists of a coating, an interlayer and a base, which are various elements - from wooden logs to rough floors and prefabricated fiberboard screeds. The interlayer can be leveling layers based on a mixture of cement, sand or polymer solution, as well as bedding, hydro- and sound-proof materials. As for the coating, it can be piece and mosaic, in the form of parquet boards or shields with different sizes and patterns.
How does the floor work?
Modern parquet floors have a complex structure, so their installation requires professionalism and the ability to work with such material. Quality installation starts with surface preparation. Since the parquet board is a high-quality floor covering, the allowable difference in surface height cannot be more than 1 mm per linear meter. Therefore, in addition to leveling the base with a screed, you will need to use a self-leveling mixture. The final leveling is provided by plywood - it is a kind of intermediate link between the parquet and the concrete base.
Performing a coupler
The parquet floor installation involves the laying of a cement-sand screed or a wooden "black" floor on the logs. However, the most commonly used screed. It has certain requirements:
- Surface evenness. Alignment is required if there are defects on the surface.
- Compressive strength. Depending on the thickness of the flooring, experts advise using a durable screed. Its minimum thickness is 40 mm.
- Low humidity. Since wood is hygroscopic, it will deform over time. Humidity of the base under the parquet should be no more than 5%. To make the screed dry faster and better, a waterproofing material is used.
Plywood as an insulating material
The installation of a parquet floor is a complex process in which it is important to foresee many details. For example, the installation technology involves the creation of an intermediate layer of plywood. Her purpose iscompensate for the "movements" of the parquet as a result of changes in humidity in the room. Before laying plywood, many experts suggest covering the screed with waterproofing material - this will protect the wooden floor from moisture accumulation and further decay. It is best in such cases to use a foil film or a special primer based on polyurethane.
The underlay is created on the basis of moisture-resistant plywood up to 20 mm thick - it depends on the thickness of the parquet plank. It is best to cut plywood into squares:
- So the probability of plywood tearing off the surface will be lower.
- The size of the squares will match the size of the planks, so the floor and underlay will show the same amount of expansion and contraction, thereby increasing the durability of the floor.
Plywood is glued to the base and additionally fastened with self-tapping screws or dowels. After laying, finishing and scraping of parquet floors is carried out.
To fix plywood and parquet, high-quality glue is required. It comes in several forms:
- Dispersion (water-soluble). This glue is optimal in terms of price and quality, shows excellent adhesion, is elastic and easy to use. When using it, there is no smell, the glue dries quickly. When choosing such a composition, attention should be paid to the amount of water - the more it is, the more the geometry of the plank will change due to glue. Dispersion adhesive should not be used if the floors (parquet board) are made of European tree species - beech, hornbeam, cherry, cherry. They are consideredunstable, because due to the water, the planks of them will warp. Do not use this adhesive if the planks are too large.
- Polyurethane. This adhesive consists of two components and is excellent when using materials prone to warping and laying wide planks. Such compounds are expensive, but they are distinguished by good adhesion to the surface and the absence of shrinkage. The short drying time means that parquet flooring must be installed as quickly as possible.
Screeding: pros and cons
There is another option for laying parquet boards - without using plywood directly on the screed. Previously, this method was not used, because the adhesives lacked elasticity, as a result, moisture could be sucked into the parquet from the screed.
Today, laying a parquet floor directly on the screed is possible due to the application of a waterproofing primer on it. And already a highly elastic adhesive is applied to it, which holds the planks in place. In some cases, it is advisable to supplement the underlay with non-woven fibrous material, which will compensate for the effort of the parquet to come off the base. The technology is good, but too expensive, besides, the work is carried out exclusively with a flat and solid base.
After the adhesive has hardened and the planks have stabilized (usually it takes about two weeks), you can start sanding the parquet. This is done with grinders of various types, gradually reducing the grain of the grindingpaper. Before sanding, it is required to putty all the cracks, recesses in order to get a beautiful parquet floor - as neat and even as possible.
Now you can cover the surface with varnish or oil. It is best to use the compositions of the same company that produces the rest of the parquet chemicals. The task of varnishes is not only to give the floor a decorative effect, but also to protect it by creating an artificial film on the surface. Most often, up to 7 layers of varnish are required. Parquet can also be covered with oil, which contains natural ingredients. The peculiarity of this finish is the ability to emphasize the texture and naturalness of wood and protect it from moisture. True, the oil coating will need to be updated from time to time.
Heated floors: parquet board or parquet?
How to make a parquet floor if you prefer a heated system? Until recently, it was impossible to think over such a repair method, since the choice of parquet boards was limited. Today, experts offer more modern solutions that allow you to avoid the appearance of cracks on the surface between parquet planks. Of course, any tree reacts to temperature changes and humidity. But in the Scandinavian countries, heated floors covered with parquet have long been used.
Heated parquet floors can be installed using the "floating floor" method using metal staples. They are needed for fastening the boards to each other, which are subsequently laid on the base without fastening. Such a floor will never be torn off from the base, because it is not connected with it.Staples allow you to regulate the natural expansion and contraction of the tree, which appear with changes in temperature and humidity. And this is very important if you will be laying parquet on a heated floor.
What kind of wood is parquet made from?
Modern parquet floors have a different base, because different woods are used to produce the material - soft, medium and hard. The higher the density of wood, the stronger it will be, showing a high degree of wear resistance. Birch and cherry are softwoods, oak, ash, merbau are medium, ebony and jatoba are hardwoods.
An important role is played by the stability of wood, that is, the degree of its deformation during temperature changes and changes in humidity. The most stable species are teak, oak, merbau, beech. However, the latter is highly sensitive to changes in the level of humidity in the room. All tree species, on the basis of which parquet flooring is created, can be divided into groups according to color. Light floor material will be obtained from beech, maple, ash, birch, hornbeam, white acacia. Such wood darkens slowly and looks beautiful indoors. Pink tones distinguish pear, cherry and alder wood, red shades can be observed in merbau, jatoba, dussia and other rare tree species. Brown parquet is made from walnut, teak, ipe-lapacho.
How parquet is classified
Parquet flooring is beautiful and bright. But it is important to consider a few points before choosing a material. First, the type plays an important role.saw cut - it can be radial or tangential. Radial sawing is considered wear-resistant, reliable and involves the presence of parallel lines along the entire length of the die. The tangential cut features curved lines and is considered the most affordable.
Secondly, you need to carefully consider the wear layer - that is, the layer of the bar from the front surface to the top edge of the spike. Thirdly, the thickness of the parquet depends on how long and reliably the floor will be used. And most importantly, the fastening of the spikes and grooves must be tight and tight while maintaining a gap of 1 mm.
The modern market offers a wide selection of wood flooring - parquet, solid board, parquet board. Massive board (GOST 8242-88) is created from solid wood and has large dimensions, unlike parquet. Its distinctive feature is the chamfer, which is available along the perimeter of the board. It highlights each board in the flooring and emphasizes its dimensions. Solid wood boards can be supplied sanded or finished with lacquer, oil or wax. In the second option, the parquet floor will not need to be treated.
In the standard version, the mounting technology involves fixing a massive board with glue and self-tapping screws. When laying this variety, you need to remember a few rules:
- Varnishing is possible only after installation.
- Solid board does not adhere to water-based or solvent-based adhesives.
- The "floating" method for laying a massive board is not suitable.
- You can not fix the board to the screed based on cement and sand.
Most often, laying errors occur due to incorrect selection of boards in width, the use of the wrong adhesive or insufficient pressing of the material.
The most beautiful is the parquet floor. The photo shows how many interesting solutions you can implement in your home. Piece parquet is created from solid wood with a thickness of 14-22 mm and complies with GOST 862.1-85. If the length and width of the planks are multiples, then you can lay out the pattern in the form of a deck or herringbone. Parquet planks come in left and right, and if a herringbone or square pattern is laid, the same number of planks will be required.
Parquet planks are securely connected to each other thanks to ridges and grooves. If the implementation of artistic elements or borders is required, then modular elements are used for this. The parquet plank is fixed with special nails by means of a pneumatic gun. All varieties of piece parquet are semi-finished products that require polishing and treatment with a protective compound after laying.
Laying parquet is carried out with a number of reservations:
- If the parquet is chamfered, it cannot be varnished after installation.
- Parquet is installed only by gluing to the base (“floating” method is not suitable).
- Parquet is not attached directly to the screed.
- If the laying was done with a dispersion adhesive or a solvent-based compound, sanding should be done immediately.
If installed incorrectly, a wooden parquet floor will at least lookunaesthetic, and as a maximum, the varnish layer will begin to crack, cracks will form, the integrity of the base structure will be violated.
After preparing the base, you can start laying parquet:
- Laying starts from a long wall: the first board is applied to the wall in the corner, a wedge is installed between them to create a gap between the flooring and the walls.
- The next planks are laid along the wall. Keep an eye on the accuracy of joining the tongue and grooves.
- All subsequent boards are stacked in the same way.
This floor material complies with GOST 862.3-86 and is a multi-layer construction. The top layer is hardwood of valuable species, the middle layer is pine or spruce bars, the bottom layer is needed to stabilize the base and is made of plywood or softwood veneer. All elements are securely glued together with a special waterproof adhesive, which ensures uniformity and adhesion strength of all layers. Such parquet floors received good reviews because the surface is even, smooth and beautiful.
When using this variety, you must carefully follow the installation steps. The parquet board can be laid in a "floating" way, while it is necessary to monitor the moisture level of the base and the gap with the wall.
Features of care and repair
Flooring, which is based on natural wood, needs careful and meticulous care. Most importantly, indoors shouldoptimal temperature and humidity are provided: 20-24 degrees at a humidity of 45-60%. The real enemies of parquet are dust and sand, which lead to rapid abrasion of the varnish or oil coating. You can clean such a floor with a damp cloth or a vacuum cleaner, but not washing!
To avoid scratches, stick special felt pads on furniture legs. Laying parquet should be carried out in rooms that are well heated in winter, as a sharp change in temperature and humidity will lead to the rapid destruction of the floor.
How to repair a parquet floor? If the problems are small, for example, scratches have appeared, they can be removed with a retouching pencil or repaired with putty. Such areas will only need to be sanded after drying and varnished. If water is spilled on the parquet, the damaged area may be deformed. In such cases, it is often necessary to re-lay the parquet or lay a new one.
Another serious problem with parquet floors is creaking. With use, it can become more and more powerful. There are several ways to fix the situation:
- Drill a hole in the center of the area where the creak is heard. This is usually sufficient.
- If the base of the floor is hard concrete, you can pour a special mixture of cement and water into the hole.
- If the creaking area is too large, then the only way to get rid of the creaking is to re-lay the parquet. It is costly and time-consuming, but reliable.
Another common problem isparquet drying. This is due to the fact that the slats dry out and decrease in size as they are used, so they begin to stagger. Such strips must be replaced, since these areas are not repaired. If this is observed in a small area, then it is easier to replace individual strips with new ones.
Under the influence of moisture changes, the parquet is moistened, then dries, and as a result, cracks appear. It is impossible to exclude this process, you can only monitor the humidity in the room using a humidifier. If the gap is very small, it is enough to clean it and then putty. If the gap is larger than 5 mm, then the putty will not help. In this case, it needs to be deepened, cleaned, cut out an insert from a suitable tree and driven into the slot. Then the surface is sanded and varnished.
Slats may peel off in some cases. This is caused by several reasons: poor-quality glue or mastic, a violation of the installation technology, or high humidity in the room. In this case, the problem is solved in different ways depending on the basis. If it is concrete, then the nests of the slats are carefully processed, then primed and dried. The strips are glued back with mastic. In the case of a wooden base, the nests of the planks are also cleaned and smeared with glue, then the loose planks are inserted back and nailed.
Beautiful parquet flooring is a great solution for any interior. The main thing is to approach its installation correctly.