Wind generators: design, principle of operation

Wind generators: design, principle of operation
Wind generators: design, principle of operation
Anonim

Technologies for generating alternative energy have long been developed by the largest companies around the world. Some European countries envisage opportunities for savings due to the introduction of such developments in energy networks in the coming years. One of the most promising areas in this area is wind energy, which is not as popular as solar panels, but at the same time has its own advantages. In particular, wind turbines for the home are characterized by energy efficiency and absolute environmental friendliness in operation.

Wind generators

wind generators

The composition of the household wind power plant includes an electric generator and a turbine, which is installed on a special mast with braces and spinning blades. To process the energy received, a battery charge controller connected to the batteries is provided. As a rule, maintenance-free 24 V components are used as batteries. An inverter is also provided in the design, which is connected to the mains. Industrial wind generators, which represent a whole range of equipment, have a more complex device. You can say thiscomplete stations, including a power cabinet with controls, communication interchanges, electric generators, wind monitoring systems, blade control devices, fire extinguishing equipment, lightning protection and other components.

Working principle

wind turbines for home

Any wind generator works on the principles of energy conversion. The rotation of active components (blades or rotors) generates lift and impulse forces, due to which the flywheel also comes into action. In the process of unwinding the flywheel, the rotor generates a magnetic field on the fixed part of the installation. As a result, electric current begins to flow to the wires. This model is general and applies to almost all stations of this type. Another thing is that in practice, wind generators may be subject to adjustments due to weather conditions. Although the designers of the same blades strive to provide as much as possible for different indicators and forces of the wind, nevertheless this phenomenon is unpredictable and can be accompanied by many other factors.

Setting capacity

At this stage of the development of the region, it is too early to talk about standardized formats for the production of such units, but certain patterns can be traced in terms of the main characteristics. For example, the power of a wind turbine for domestic use is usually no more than 100 kW. Oddly enough, models providing up to 1 kW are also in demand; such installations are referred to as microwind energy. They are used when equipping yachts,agricultural farms, etc.

vertical wind generator

More serious industrial and commercial equipment is produced by not so many companies, but the capacity of such installations can reach 5 MW. As a rule, these are massive turbines, the mass of which reaches several tons. At the same time, manufacturers are striving to make the equipment mobile, or at least provide for the possibility of transportation. If we talk about models for home use, then in most cases these are 220V wind turbines, the total power of which can be about 4 kW.

Features of small wind turbines

This class of equipment is of the greatest interest from commercial companies and ordinary consumers interested in the use of wind energy. Installations of this type have a standard design, including blades, a rotor, turbines, orientation aids, a generator with a mast, an inverter and batteries. The features of such devices include independence from the central power grid - this means that small wind turbines for the home can operate offline. This format of operation is most attractive for owners of suburban real estate, where there is no stable supply from the central power grid. In addition, the creators of such installations in some models tend to combine the concept of a wind generator and a solar battery. As a result, the household mini-station is equipped with a DC module for communication with solar panels.

Varieties of generators

wind generator price

Principal separation of such installations led to the classification according to the axes of rotation. In particular, there is a vertical wind generator and its horizontal analogue of the vane type. The units of the first first group are sensitive to gusts and do not need special orientation. However, such models also have a serious drawback - compared to horizontal installations, their working surface is half the area. That is, the vertical rotary axis of rotation of the turbines is better guided by the characteristics of the wind, but initially provides a smaller amount of energy.

In turn, winged models with a horizontally directed axis are able to interact with wind flows of a larger area. Of course, there is a problem with the direction of the work items, but this problem is solved using a conventional weather vane. Accordingly, in terms of the combination of advantages, impeller installations are currently more promising than a vertical wind generator of a carousel type. However, designs are being improved, and it is possible that something in between these options will come to the fore.

Wind generator manufacturers

Russian wind turbines

European and Chinese manufacturers take the lead in the wind turbine market. In particular, the Danish company Vestas, as well as the Chinese manufacturers Goldwind and Sinovel, are showing the greatest success.

As for domestic enterprises, they also have something to brag about. On the market, for example, models from the Sapsan-Energy". To date, two versions of installations of this brand are available to users - for 1000 and 5000 W. The Chelyabinsk enterprise "GRTS-Vertical" produces just vertical-type installations with a rated power from 1500 to 30,000 watts. You can also find Russian wind turbines to provide small amounts of energy. For example, Stroyingservice offers a 500 W wind generator. It is important to note that almost every Russian manufacturer also provides after-sales service of equipment, so there should be no problems in maintaining equipment.

Question of price

wind generator power

Each manufacturer, despite the use of general principles for the implementation of installations, still goes his own way. The result is units with unique characteristics and, accordingly, price tags. In the initial segment, you can find a wind generator, the price of which will vary from 40 to 70 thousand rubles. This is a household mini-station with an autonomous mode of operation, which is optimally suited for the needs of a small house. This is followed by proposals worth 100-150 thousand rubles. As a rule, these are units with a power of 5000 W or more, which can also be used for commercial purposes.

Expediency of using wind turbines

According to experts, it is not always profitable to use such installations to meet private needs. This is due to high prices for batteries, inverters and installation. In addition, sometimes it is required to install a diesel generator as an add-on, which also increases costs.on the organization of such a method of supplying energy. Nevertheless, wind generators can justify themselves if the conversion is carried out directly into heat. In this case, the function of the generator as a heating system is implemented, the capabilities of which can be used both for hot water supply and for elementary heating of the house.

wind generators for 220v

Conclusion

With all the shortcomings, wind turbines are actively moving on the market, attracting more and more new users. This is due to the prospects of the segment and the attractiveness of the opportunities provided by free energy sources. Already today, wind generators are able to take on the full energy supply of private houses. Of course, the use of such installations does not justify itself in all regions due to climatic features. But even in these cases, experts recommend not to refuse such proposals, supplementing the installations with photovoltaic cells, fuel generators and other auxiliary energy sources.

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