Walls in apartments or houses occupy a large area. They play a very important role in home improvement. With the help of their decoration, they make the desired interior and the desired interior design of the home. For this reason, we can say that rough plaster is of great importance in the repair of a house and or apartment. The article will show you how to make rough wall plaster with your own hands.
What is rough plaster?
Upon completion of the construction of houses, apartments, cottages or any residential premises, rough plastering is required. And it does not matter whether this structure will be built of brick, aerated concrete or concrete panels. Even if the surface of the wall is flat, plastering work is still carried out. This makes the base suitable for further decorative finishing. It is more practical to make rough plaster on the basis of a cement mixture. But you can also use gypsum building and cement-lime mortars.
Rough wall plaster isone of the longest and most difficult stages of repair. Therefore, in the process of its implementation, you should be patient and listen to the recommendations of professionals.
You should apply the rough plaster correctly so that at the end you get a flat surface of the walls both horizontally and vertically. This is especially important if the cladding will be made with tiles.
If the plaster is made with a defect, then over time the finish will simply begin to crumble, which will lead to additional costs of money and time.
Types of solutions
So, you should pay attention that before starting repair work, you need to decide which mixture is suitable for this room. If the renovation will take place in the bathroom under the tiles, the rough plaster of the walls should consist of cement. You should consider in detail what materials are needed for this work. The plastering solution contains the following components:
- binder - cement, lime or gypsum;
- river sand, although quarry sand can also be used.
Mostly cement mortars are used when rough wall finishing is made. Plastering can also be done with gypsum mixtures.
In recent years, it is gypsum mortar that has become more commonly used in this process than cement mortar. This happened due to the properties of gypsum that it possesses:
- It has a light weight as well as excellent adhesion (stickiness to the surface).
- Savedoriginal appearance after drying.
- Reinforcing mesh is not necessary if the concrete base is smooth.
- Gypsum material is very flexible, which allows it to be easily applied to the wall.
- Unlikely cracking after drying.
- Good sound and heat insulating properties.
The mortar, which is made on a cement basis, is not so flexible and is afraid of large temperature changes. However, it is more durable and resistant to the adverse conditions of wet rooms. And also cement mixtures are used for outdoor work.
Types of wall finishes
There are two types of wall finishes. You should consider them in more detail:
- Draft. This type of finish involves working with plaster, if the building is built of brick luggage, a putty wall, reinforced concrete, the lining is made of drywall or OSB. The purpose of the rough plaster is a guarantee of a quality foundation for further work with decorative finishes.
- Fine. One of the techniques is finishing wall plastering. The rough work at this stage allows you to add special touches to the interior design.
Thanks to this method, the base gets the desired look. After the completion of the fine finishing work, the premises are ready and can be put into operation.
Before you make a rough plaster of the walls, prepare the necessary construction equipment. It must be assembled in advance. This in the process of work will reduce the time to search for it whennecessary.
Required wall plaster tool:
- Phillips screwdriver;
- steel stroking;
- building level;
- metal scissors;
- maklovitsa (wide brush);
- beacons for plaster;
- h alter;
- plaster spatula;
- a container for mixing the solution.
When repairs are being carried out in an already operated room, such a procedure requires more preparation time, financial costs and effort.
When repairs are being carried out throughout the apartment, this is a fairly large volume. The rough plaster of the walls, no matter what material is chosen for this, is a sequence of certain preparatory work. Consider them:
- Initially, remove the old layer of plaster if it does not hold well. This is checked by tapping on the wall with a hammer, and if an empty sound is detected, it is imperative to knock down the finish.
- Then remove dust and dirt. This is done with the help of maklovitsa and water. After drying, be sure to treat the surface with a primer. This will greatly increase adhesion.
- Next, a notch is applied to the concrete wall, the length of which should be 1.5 cm, the depth 0.3 cm. Usually 250 pieces are applied per square meter.
- If the wall has a wooden base, then they fill it withchain-link mesh, which is attached to the slats.
- For a brick wall, to increase adhesion to the base, you need to deepen the seams between the blocks.
When they begin to make a rough plaster of the walls, the base must be moistened. To do this, you can use a brush, but it is most comfortable to use a garden sprayer (spray gun).
And it is very important that the walls are impregnated with a primer before starting work. This will greatly increase adhesion. If the base is brick or aerated concrete, a deep penetration primer should be used.
It is important to consider: if the wall is brick, then before starting the plastering process, it is necessary to remove the old layer, because this material is weak. It cannot withstand the new rough finish. Especially if it is a bathroom, where tiles will then be laid on top.
Preparing the solution
When the base has been prepared, you can proceed directly to the rough plaster of the wall. Finishing requires the preparation of a solution. It should include:
The last of these ingredients must be sieved through a large mesh. This is a necessary, obligatory procedure. If the sand contains clay or any debris, then it is removed by sifting. You should also pay attention to the brand of cement. The proportions of the mixture depend on it.
If the cement is M400, then, as a rule, 1:4mix cement with sand. With the M500, the ratio is already 1:5. If the cement has been in storage for a long time, more is added when mixing. But the shelf life according to GOSTs is 3-4 months.
Then the components are mixed in a container where water is added and mixed well until an elastic mass is obtained. The solution is checked for the quality of preparation during operation. Therefore, you should initially apply a small layer on the bases and see that the resulting consistency does not spread or slip.
Recommendations should be followed during the preparation of the solution, otherwise their non-compliance may lead to the following:
- if the composition contains too much cement, cracks may occur;
- if there is excess sand, this can lead to shedding of the plaster.
If you don’t want to bother with mixing cement and sand, you can buy ready-made mortars packed in bags in construction stores.
They just need to be mixed with plain water. Here is a huge range of similar products: gypsum, cement-sand compositions, cement with lime. For rough wall plastering, any can be chosen.
The prepared mixture, whether purchased or made by yourself, must be insisted for five minutes. During this time, the process of ripening takes place in it.
There is nothing complicated in the application technology.
It consists of several stages, which are divided bytiming.
- Splatter. To carry out this work, the solution must be made more watery. For a brick base, it is recommended to apply the first layer up to 4 mm, and on a wooden one it is thrown in one centimeter. The mixture is applied evenly with a trowel. You can also apply the first layer with your hands. But this method is considered less effective and longer. When the mixture is applied, the trowel is brought closer to the wall. The solution is rubbed with slow movements over the base.
- Priming. With this method of application, the mass of the solution looks like dough. The work is carried out after the spray has dried. The plaster is applied to the base. With the help of rules or a wide spatula, it is leveled from the bottom up. This removes excess solution. Over time, when the work is completed, be sure to smooth out the shortcomings with a trowel.
- Nakryvka. Work continues only after the previous layer is completely dry. The solution should be diluted to the consistency of sour cream. Nakryvka is done with a thickness of 2-5 mm. It is better to use a lighthouse for this work. Rough plaster walls with it will move easier. Moreover, this stage is intended to eliminate blunders after priming.
The solution for quality work should be applied to a damp base. Then the grouting stage is performed. Wait until dry.
The mashing process must be done with sharp movements. The grater must be pressed tightly against the wall. It brings the appearance of the wall to a smooth state. This is done in counterclockwise circular motions.arrows.
At the completion of the working steps, the plastered wall must be completely dry.
When a bathroom renovation is being carried out, it must be borne in mind that only cement mortar should be used for rough wall plastering. There is a peculiarity here. Since there is high humidity in this room, gypsum mortars are strictly prohibited.
For rooms where these conditions are observed, it is best to use mixtures with sanitizing properties. These solutions already include special plasticizers and additives that resist a humid environment. Sanitizing plaster has certain advantages:
- has excellent waterproofing effect;
- prevents efflorescence;
- she has high vapor permeability;
- completely environmentally friendly, does not contain any toxic additives;
- low pricing for such a product.
The process and technology are similar to the work in other rooms. So in the bathroom, all the same steps as mentioned above apply.
Recommended by professionals
For high-quality plastering of walls in an apartment with a rough finish, you need to follow the recommendations of experts.
Some nuances should be considered that will help speed up the production process and facilitate the work of the employee when repairing apartments and houses:
- It is recommended to work with mixtures at positive temperatures, and perform similar actions from 5 to 30 ºС andhumidity, which did not exceed 60%. Although it is worth noting that there are mixtures on sale that are allowed to work at -5 ºС.
- At the end of each stage of work, wash the tool that participated in the process and clean it from building mixtures and additives.
- When rough plastering is done, water should be poured over the base surface.
- You should also read the manufacturer's instructions for the material you are working on.
- Usually, the arrangement of a room begins with ceilings.
- Also, you should wait for the complete drying of the applied layer. It is easily checked by pressing with your finger. If no trace remains, then the plaster layer is completely dry.
A new renovation in an apartment or a newly built house will please the owners after finishing work. It is necessary to adhere to the recommendations presented and comply with building rules and regulations. Then your work will be justified, and the finish will last for many years.