How to make the earth fertile and soft?

How to make the earth fertile and soft?
How to make the earth fertile and soft?
Anonim

Not every summer resident can boast of rich harvests. Indeed, in addition to regular care, it is important to plant plants in fertile and breathable soil. And to achieve such a state of the soil, you need to make a lot of effort. How to make the land in the countryside fertile and loose, you will learn from this material.

fertile black soil

Check composition

Before choosing a way to make the earth loose and fertile, it is important to know the initial state of the soil. Of course, it is better to examine the soil in an agro-laboratory, where they will conduct a complete analysis. But, alas, for most summer residents, such testing is not available.

Do not be upset, because the mechanical composition of the soil, which is responsible for the amount of moisture and air in the soil, can be found out on your own. To do this, moisten the ground with water and try to roll a "sausage" out of it. Results interpretation:

  • If the "dough" is not kneaded and falls apart, then your soil is sandy, that is, too light.
  • If you managed to make a "sausage", but it breaks, then you havelight loam is the best type of soil.
  • If you rolled the "sausage" into a ring, then you have heavy clay soil.

For owners of light loams, it is enough to fertilize the site to get a good harvest. The owners of sites with heavy clay soil will have to correct its composition, because in such soil the plants take root poorly and it is difficult for their roots to develop. But too light soil - sandy loam, has a bad effect on the crop. In such soil, moisture and minerals are quickly washed out, so crops require more care.

soil types

Change the mechanical composition of the soil

First, let's figure out how to make the earth loose if it is too clayey. In this case, river sand in the amount of 21 kg per square meter will help you. Approximately this is 1.5 buckets with a volume of 10 liters. Spread the sand evenly over the surface of the soil, then dig the area to a depth of 20-25 cm, or a full shovel bayonet. If you want to fix the sandy loam, then add clay to it. In addition, use black soil or humus for these purposes.

Even if you have corrected the mechanical composition of the soil, it has not become more fertile, because the ground still needs to be fertilized. Learn how to do this below.

manure fertilizer

Fertilize with manure

Introducing animal waste into the soil is an effective way to make the land on the site fertile and loose. After all, such “products” contain a full range of vitamins and nutrients necessary for growth.plants. Moreover, pig, horse or cow manure can be used as fertilizer.

Remember that fresh manure is quite aggressive and dangerous to plants. Therefore, apply this product at least 6 months before planting. For example, in the fall after digging, but only on an empty plot. During this time, the aggressiveness of the manure will decrease, while all the nutrients will dissolve in the soil. In addition, the product will serve as an excellent baking powder.

If the manure is overripe, then it can be applied during spring planting. Fertilizer rate:

  • Fresh horse - 5-6 kg, rotted - 2.5-3 kg per 1 sq. m landing.
  • Fresh cow - 4-5 kg, rotted - 2-2.5 kg per 1 sq. m landing.

Never apply fresh pig manure, even when planting in the fall. Such a product contains a large amount of nitrogen in the ammonia form. Therefore, keep it for at least a year until it completely rots. Also, try to mix this fertilizer with cow or horse manure.

digging the earth

Must

Applying fertilizer made from rotted manure and peat is the best way to make the land fertile and loose. Moreover, such a composition is suitable for continuous application and point application. And if you add nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers to it, you will significantly increase its effectiveness.

The main thing is to properly prepare the humus. To do this, put fresh manure and peat in layers in a compost bin in a ratio of 1 to 1. The thickness of each layer should reach 25–30 cm.reduce the acidity of fertilizers, add phosphate rock or limestone to them. Moisturize the pile as needed without letting it dry out. Withstand humus from 6 months to 1 year.

How to fertilize the soil with a composition? Apply 20 kg of humus per 10 sq. m plot. In clay soil, apply fertilizer to a depth of 15–20 cm. If you have sandy soil, then dig in the composition by 30 cm.

soil loosening

Mulch with cut grass

This method of making the land fertile and soft is quite effective. Besides, it's safe. True, the effect of mulching the soil with grass comes a little later than from fertilizing with manure. But at the same time, the layer perfectly retains moisture in the soil, moreover, it makes the earth loose and soft and protects plants from pests and diseases.

How to mulch the surface? Spread the cut grass on the plot in a layer of 7-8 cm. For 20 square meters of planting, you will need 1 standard bale of straw.

Owners of light loams and sandy loams can resort to such fertilizers at any time of the year. If you have heavy clay soil, then mulch the surface from the beginning of June. Otherwise, the soil will not warm up and will not dry out in early spring. Leave the cut grass until the next season, and after a few years, the clay will gradually turn into loose and light loam.

grass mulch

Siderats - summer resident's helpers

If you are looking for a way to make the land fertile without manure, then pay attention to useful plants such as:

  • lupine;
  • peas;
  • alfalfa;
  • legumes;
  • oats.

The roots of these plants contain nodule bacteria that can draw and fix nitrogen from the air. Therefore, thanks to the sowing of green manure, the soil is naturally filled with nutrients and useful substances. In addition, crops have a powerful root system, which loosens the soil, making it more breathable. And this is very useful for peaty or clay soil.

Green fertilizer

It is not necessary to buy expensive top dressings to make the soil fertile and light. After all, you can prepare an effective fertilizer yourself. Moreover, any plant material that you find on the site is suitable for its creation. And this is mowed grass, wilted leaves and flowers, shoots left after pruning trees, and even weeded weeds. The main thing is that plant residues are not diseased, affected by pests or treated with herbicides.

How to prepare fertilizer:

  1. Fill the barrel 2/3 full with chopped plant parts.
  2. Fill the mass with water to the top and cover with a film. At the same time, make 2–3 holes in it for gas exchange.
  3. Infuse the fertilizer for 7-10 days, remembering to stir daily.

Strain the resulting solution and dilute with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. After that, water the beds. This fertilizer is good because it is instantly absorbed by plants, besides, it reduces the acidity of the soil and protects the roots of crops from pests and diseases.

checking soil for acidity

Influenceon soil acidity

According to the reaction, the soil is alkaline, acidic and neutral. Moreover, the latter option is most preferable for plants. And worst of all, cultures take root on acidic soil. How to fix this situation? Add calcium to the soil:

  • dolomite flour;
  • chalk;
  • slaked lime.

The amount of such fertilizers depends on the level of acidity. To find out, buy a special device that shows the pH level. With strong acidity (less than 3.5), add 300 g of the substance per 1 sq. m, medium (3, 6-4, 3) - 200 g, weak (4, 4-4, 9) - 100 g.

Now you know how to make the land in the garden soft, loose and fertile. Apply these simple rules and a good harvest is guaranteed.

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