The ceilings between floors in a private house are structures that divide the premises in height, forming floors. These structures separate the basement and attic from the main ones. They must be strong enough to withstand the load of their own weight and payload, which turns out to be furniture, people, and equipment.
The amount of payload per square meter will depend on the purpose of the room and the nature of the equipment. If we are talking about the attic floor, then this value is not more than 105 kilograms per square meter. For the interfloor ceiling of the basement floor, this value increases to 210 kilograms per square meter. Ceilings between floors in a private house must be strong, under the influence of loads they should not bend, the allowable amount of bendingfor attic floors is 1/200, while in the case of spans between floors, this value should be 1/250.
Basic requirements for floors
In the process of building floors, a sufficient degree of sound insulation should be ensured, the value is set by the standards during the design. To do this, close the gaps at the joints of the material, only in this case, sounds from neighboring rooms will spread minimally. Ceilings that separate rooms with a certain temperature difference must comply with thermal protection requirements. This indicates the need for an additional layer of thermal insulation. Any structure, especially made of wood, is not able to withstand prolonged exposure to fire. It should be remembered that each material is characterized by a certain value of the fire resistance limit. For reinforced concrete floors, it is 60 minutes, but if the structure is made of wood with backfill, and has a plastered surface from below, then fire resistance will last 45 minutes. Wooden floors, which are protected by a layer of plaster, are able to withstand a flame for about 15 minutes. If there are wooden floors that were not protected by fireproof materials during the arrangement, it should be borne in mind that their fire resistance is even lower.
Varieties of floors
The floors between floors in a private house can be interfloor, basement, basement or attic. According to the constructive solution, the bearing part of the floors can be beamed or beamless. In the first case, the system consists of beams and infill. In the second, the structure is made of homogeneous elements like panels or slabs.
Features of the Beam Floor
The ceilings between floors in a private house can be beamed, while individual elements are located at an equal distance from each other, and filling elements are laid on the beams. The latter act as a barrier. Beams can be metal, reinforced concrete or wood.
Features of the construction of floors from wooden beams
In the construction of private houses, in most cases, wooden beams are used. For beams, there are restrictions on the width of the span, they can be used for attic floors or interfloor structures, in which the span should be 5 meters. Such products are made of coniferous or hardwood, and on the upper side, flooring is made, which is the floor. The design of such an overlap provides for the presence of beams, rolling, floor and heat-insulating material.
If you decide to build floors between floors in a private house with your own hands based on wooden beams, you should know that the housemay be rectangular. In this case, it is necessary to overlap the spans in the direction along the short wall. In order for the floor to not sag under its own weight, its elements are laid at a certain distance. If it is necessary to build a 3x4 meter ceiling, 6x20 beams should be used, which are laid along a 3 meter wall. If the ceiling is interfloor, then the beams should be 1.25 meters apart, in the case of an attic floor, the distance increases to 1.85 meters. This indicates that as the span increases, the distance between the beams becomes larger.
If you will be laying floors between floors in a private house made of wood, then initially the elements are treated with an antiseptic. When they are supported on a concrete or stone wall, the ends are wrapped in two layers of roofing material, and the beam is inserted into the prepared nest. In this case, the element should not reach the back wall by 3 centimeters, the end of the beam should be made bevelled. The remaining free space is filled with thermal insulation, which can be replaced with mounting foam.
4x4 or 5x5 bars, which are called cranial, are fixed on the side faces of the beams. On the bars, a roll of wooden shields is fixed. The roll plates are tightly pressed against each other, they are attached to the cranial bar using self-tapping screws. When overlappings are performed between floors in a private house, it is recommended to consider the photo in advance. This will allow you to understand whatthe design provides for the need for laying insulation. It will act as a sound-absorbing layer, and in the attic floor - the function of thermal insulation. As a material, you can use foam, expanded clay, sawdust, mineral wool, shavings, straw, and tree foliage. After fixing the roll-on, thermal insulation is laid on top. Between the beams, you should first lay a layer of roofing, vapor barrier film or glassine, bending the material five centimeters onto the beams. Then comes the turn of laying a layer of thermal insulation.
Construction of a concrete floor
Concrete floors between floors in a private house can have different shapes. If we are talking about monolithic structures, then they are a solid slab, the thickness of which is equal to the limit from 8 to 12 centimeters. In this case, concrete grade M 200 is used, the slab itself rests on load-bearing walls. The mass of a square meter of such an overlap can be 490 kilograms if the thickness is 200 millimeters. Installation is carried out in several stages, the first is the installation of load-bearing beams on a prepared site, then a wooden formwork from an unedged board is equipped, and at the next stage 6 mm reinforcement is laid. At the final stage, concrete is poured. The thickness of the floors between floors in a private house can be equal to the above limit, but it is also important to correctly build the formwork, which is sometimes purchased ready-made. It consists of telescopic racks, beams, plywood, andalso tripods. If you use formwork made of aluminum or wooden beams, then the master will have the opportunity to build a ceiling of any configuration.
The ceilings between floors in a private house made of aerated concrete are usually equipped with wood, since the weight of the material at the base of the walls is not so large as to undergo concrete loads.