Sewage filter well

Sewage filter well
Sewage filter well

Wastewater treatment is an important task for owners of private houses. It can be solved with a septic tank or a filter well. The latter option requires less investment in the arrangement and is more acceptable for many. Such a system allows water to pass into the soil, already purified from pollution.

filter well


The filter well is a container with special elements for cleaning. The first stage of wastewater treatment is a filter that collects large contaminants. Next, microorganisms that live in the sludge that has formed on the internal surfaces come into play. Often, such systems are equipped in addition to the septic tank and provide complete wastewater treatment.

Despite the versatility of the filter, it can only be installed if groundwater occurs at a depth of at least 2.5 meters. If this rule is not observed, the contaminated liquid will enter the aquifer. The soil itself must contain a large amount of sand to quickly pass the runoff.

Average daily water consumption determines the number and size of wells. The total volume should be several times higher than consumption. As additional treatment measures, biological filters and special trenches are used, the latter are often designed to divert treated wastewater to nearby water bodies.

filter cartridge for gutter


The factory analogue of this design is a filter cartridge for a storm water well, the main purpose of which is to clean rainwater from oil products, fine suspension and heavy metals. It can have different sizes and is usually made to order. Such a device can be used in parking lots, in cottage settlements and campsites. The design consists of a plastic container, a grid and a non-woven material covering the upper part and the main part, consisting of an absorbent material. Treated wastewater is safe for the environment and suitable for discharge into water bodies.

Sanitary standards

The first stage of arrangement is a competent choice of location. Particular attention is paid to sanitary requirements, in accordance with which:

  • The filter well for the septic tank is located 2-4 meters from the neighboring area.
  • The construction of such a structure is prohibited near wells and other sources of drinking water. The minimum distance is 30 meters. With high water permeability of the soil, this parameter increases by 20 meters.
  • Distancethere must be at least 10 meters between the well and residential buildings.
filter well for septic tank


The dimensions of the structure depend on the intensity of the drains and the type of soil, most often the diameter of the upper part is 2 meters. The depth of the filter is selected individually and ranges from 2-3 meters. Digging a filter well deeper than 3.5 meters is undesirable, as this will make cleaning difficult and may speed up the need to create a new septic tank.

It is possible to use any environmentally friendly filter media. Slag, chipped brick, peat, crushed stone gained the greatest popularity. It is recommended to use material with a fraction of no more than 3 cm. The best option would be a combination of several types of fillers. For example, fine slag is laid on the bottom, and chipped brick acts as the top layer. In this case, organic waste will remain on the top layer and be processed by microorganisms living in the sludge. After that, the drains will undergo additional cleaning with slag and will end up in the soil layer.

sewer filter well


The sewage filter well can have a different shape, for example, rectangular or round, which depends on the materials used. Arrangement of walls is possible with the help of automobile tires, reinforced concrete products, concrete or bricks.

First you need to dig a foundation pit. Its dimensions are selected in accordance with the intended design and with a margin of 30-40see Arrangement of walls does not require special skills. When using bricks, it is recommended to install with holes about 4-5 cm wide to prevent standing water.

To build a well from concrete rings, you can purchase ready-made products or find used rings with natural holes, significantly saving the budget.

The installation process of products can be simplified by installing a ring in place of the intended filter and gradually removing the soil from the inside. The ring under the influence of its own weight will gradually sink into the ground. It is also necessary to deal with the remaining products, stacking them on top of each other.

Before arranging the walls, it is necessary to determine in advance the outlet point of the septic tank or sewer drain. In this case, the pipe outlet must be at least 20 cm from the level of the bulk material. It is also recommended to select a piece of wood of a suitable size to place it under the jet impact. This will improve the quality of cleaning and ensure even distribution of wastewater.

The filtering material is poured only after the completion of the walls. According to experts, the best solution would be to fill the fine-grained material along the edge of the bottom and fill the center with larger material. Backfilling is necessary not only for the bottom, but also for the free space between the walls of the pit and the filter.

well with filter loading


The upper part is covered with a shield made of reinforced concrete or wood. At the same time, it shouldleave room for the vent and hatch. The last element is of invaluable importance, since it is used for preventive inspection and, if necessary, cleaning of the bulk layer. A well with a filter load must have a hatch with dimensions of at least 70 cm to ensure free access. It is best to use a double construction with insulation. The location of the vent can be any. Finally, the upper part is covered with roofing material, pressed down with soil. In order to prevent freezing during the winter months, you need to make a thicker layer - at least half a meter. An unsightly appearance can be decorated with any elements of landscape design, a flower bed, for example.

Plastic analogues

Plastic filter wells have gained sufficient distribution. Their arrangement is more expensive than a septic tank from improvised materials, but they have many advantages. Among the main ones, it is worth highlighting quick installation, reliability and simple maintenance. The volume of the container can vary widely, so it is selected in accordance with the approximate daily water consumption. The basis of the tank is a layer of filter material, the walls are made of durable plastic, not subject to corrosion and characterized by a long service life. Plastic containers are presented by manufacturers in an extensive range, which greatly simplifies the choice.

well with filter cartridge

Using tires

The most budget option is a filter well fromused car tires. Its throughput is quite enough for a family of three. Most often, such systems are equipped with houses used only for living in the summer months, since the material is subject to freezing, which reduces the vital activity of bacteria or completely stops at abnormally low temperatures.

The creation of such a design does not require special skills - just put the tires on top of each other and fix them with plastic clamps. Joints are sealed with a special compound. The manufacture of the upper part of the structure and the backfilling of the material are carried out in exactly the same way as when creating wells from other materials.

plastic filter wells


A well with a filter cartridge requires systematic maintenance, which consists in the timely removal of sludge and cleaning of large contaminants. Before cleaning, it is necessary to stop the operation of the sewer for some time to reduce the level of effluents in the tank. After that, you need to partially replace the bulk layer and carefully loosen it.

In case of severe silting, special products are used, which are also recommended to be used to maintain cleanliness. They have a different cost, depending on the volume and manufacturer. Before adding the drug, the filter well is emptied using a cesspool machine, after which the agent dissolved in hot water is poured.

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