Thanks to modern construction technologies and materials, high-quality repairs can be made. The main requirement that any house must meet is a comfortable indoor temperature. To fulfill this condition, people are increasingly arranging a warm floor. This is a heating system that will heat a residential building in a short time. Further in the article, the main types of underfloor heating will be considered, the difference between which is significant in terms of technology.
Advantages of the heating system
To warm up the house, it is not necessary to use traditional radiators, which heat the room unevenly. They work on the principle of convection, that is, warm air rises. This problem is especially felt in winter. Colds and constant complaints about low temperatures are just a few of the troubles for homeowners who have not installed underfloor heating.
The mentioned modern heating system will save you from many problems. The room will be comfortable and cozy, andthanks to the special temperature control function, you can set the desired temperature.
Currently, many varieties of underfloor heating are produced, but they all have common advantages:
- space saving (communication will be hidden under the floor covering);
- high reliability;
- even temperature distribution.
In addition, simple installation is the main advantage of this system, but each type has its own installation technology.
General classification of underfloor heating
The mentioned heating systems are divided into two main groups according to the type of coolant used:
- Water ones can work both from a heating boiler installed in a private house and from hot water supply.
- Electrical types of underfloor heating - cable, film (infrared), rod, liquid and systems based on amorphous tape. In this case, heating is carried out using the thermal action of the current.
You can mount this system under a concrete screed or wood flooring. In addition, underfloor heating is classified according to temperature control into the following types:
- Power operated (manual).
- Digital, when the temperature regime can be changed using a special sensor.
- Programmatically controlled, in which the power of the system is adjusted for several weeks in advance.
Cable floor heating: general characteristics
This type of artificial heating masters recommend installing in a large room or garage. Two types of cable floors are produced: one- and two-core. A suitable option must be selected before the start of the repair work, that is, at the design stage, it is necessary to decide which type of underfloor heating will be used.
Among the main advantages of cable systems, the following points should be highlighted:
- low power consumption;
- long service life;
- low price.
But there are also disadvantages:
- labor-intensive installation best left to professionals;
- cheap models generate electromagnetic radiation during operation.
When buying a heating cable, you need to choose a product that has an ISO 14000 certificate. This document is a guarantee of the safety of the system. If the specified certificate is missing, then it is better to refuse the purchase.
Cable underfloor heating: step-by-step installation technology
Masters advise first to make thermal insulation of the walls: in this way it will be possible to avoid significant losses of heated air inside the house. To perform installation work, you need to follow the following instructions:
- Draw a plan of the room where you want to mark the areas where the elements of the system will be located.
- Install the thermostat on the wall, and put the sensor on the floor through the groove (strab).
- Prepare a power lead that can withstandheavy load from the operating heating system.
- If necessary, the old screed must be dismantled, and a heat-insulating layer should be laid on a clean surface.
- Fix the damper (edge) tape around the perimeter of the floor.
- Measure the resistance of the heating cable, which should not exceed the values specified in the device certificate by more than 10%.
- You need to fasten the system elements to the reinforcing mesh using cable ties or mounting tapes. However, if work is carried out in a bathroom, sauna, toilet or bath, that is, in rooms with a high level of humidity, then it is necessary to install a ground loop to which the thermostat should be connected. In addition, the design must be connected to a residual current device (RCD).
- The heating wire and the temperature sensor are recommended to be passed through a corrugated pipe, which will protect the elements of the heating system from mechanical damage.
- Do a wire resistance proof test.
- Remove the regulator for further cladding and pour concrete screed.
- Final stage - laying the flooring on the hardened mortar.
The result is a quality heating system that can quickly heat up a large room.
Description of underfloor heating film
This system, when connected to the mains, generates infrared rays, due to which the room heats up quickly. Energymoves to the structure with the help of copper-silver conductors. The main elements of this type of electric floor heating are soldered with polyester.
Laminate, linoleum, parquet, tile, porcelain stoneware and other floor coverings can be laid on top of such a heating system. In addition, the film is sometimes attached to the back of the carpet, so it can be easily moved to another room (this is considered a kind of mobile warm floor). Other benefits include the following technical parameters:
- the system is not affected by water and steam, since the carbon rods are sealed in thermal film;
- high strength;
- fast heating;
- when damaged, only a specific section of the system is damaged;
- protection against mechanical impact;
- low flammability.
In addition, if necessary, the specified system can be quickly disassembled: for this you need to remove the floor covering and remove the structural sheets. Varieties of electric warm floors of film variation of both bimetallic and carbon (graphite) types are well-spread.
The following factors are considered the disadvantages of such a heating system:
- the need for a large number of hidden contacts;
- when organizing such a system, you will need to buy additional components (for example, connectors and insulators);
- if you plan to use a tile (ceramic tile) as a floor covering, you need to make a screed layer of at least 15 mm.
You can install the specified varietywarm floors in the house even under the ceiling or wall. The main technical requirement is the absence of contact of the system elements with air.
Installation of underfloor heating film
If you plan to equip the system for a laminate, you should first carry out preparatory work, the meaning of which is to lay a waterproofing film. For tiles, you need to make a screed, and then put the tiles on the adhesive. In addition, two key rules must be taken into account when calculating the system, more precisely:
- Thermal film should not be placed where furniture will be placed.
- To achieve maximum effect, the elements of the system should occupy more than 70% of the floor area.
Masters recommend performing installation work in the following sequence:
- Make and align the screed.
- Lay 3 mm thick polypropylene foam on the floor, which will act as a thermal insulation substrate. The material must be joined using the "butt joint" method and the resulting joints should be glued with adhesive tape.
- Cut the film into strips along the marked lines, which must be measured in accordance with the drawing drawn up at the planning stage of the repair.
- Joints must be carefully treated with special bituminous insulation that comes with underfloor heating.
- Connect system components to electrical wiring.
- Install the thermostat into the wall, and place its sensor in a 10-20 mm deep strobe.
Film should be handled with care as it is not scratch resistant.mechanical impact. When the system is connected, you need to check it for operability, and then lay a laminate or tile.
Water floor heating
The specified heating system works on the principle of water circulation inside the installation. It consists of the following elements:
- pump - a device for pumping water through pipes;
- heat-conducting layer, the purpose of which is to evenly warm the floor and protect the system from mechanical damage;
- elements for fastening pipes. This also includes additional parts with the help of which insulating materials of a certain variety are fixed;
- pipes for floor heating;
- Waterproofing layer to prevent water leakage.
This is a cheap heating system that you can make yourself. But before starting the preparatory work, you need to study the disadvantages of a water-heated floor:
- when pouring cement-sand mortar, pipes and other elements of the system can be easily damaged;
- it is forbidden to make this type of underfloor heating in the apartment, because with constant circulation of water, the cooled liquid will return to the neighbors.
Installation of water floor heating
First you need to decide which method of laying the heating pipes will be used. There are two mounting methods:
- In a coupler.
- Under flooring.
For the device of the system in a cement screedyou need to perform the following technological operations:
- Level the floor.
- Fix the damper tape along the perimeter of the surface.
- Insulate the base of the floor.
- Lay reinforcing mesh.
- Select a place to fix pipes of the desired diameter.
- Masters advise to supplement the system with additional elements: a control valve and a thermostat.
- Fill the pipes with cement-sand mortar.
If flooring made of boards is planned in the room, the system can be installed directly under them without a screed. In addition, there are such modern types of pipes for underfloor heating:
Choice of flooring
The following materials can be used for finishing work:
- self-leveling floors;
- tile (tiled or ceramic);
- porcelain stoneware;
- parquet board.
The best type of floor heating is tile. This is a classic cladding material whose high technical parameters have made it popular in the construction industry.
Which type of underfloor heating to choose for tiles: the best solution
Masters advise when thinking about this problem to take into account the size and technical parameters of the room. Each of the mentioned methods of arranging the heating systemsuitable for tiled flooring. Therefore, the main thing is to take into account the advantages and disadvantages of the considered methods.
For example, the organization of a water heated floor is the cheapest option. Such a system is easy to maintain, but in old houses it is better to refuse to install it: floor slabs may simply not withstand its load.
Electric heating is considered the best solution because it is easier to install. In addition, such a system will heat up the tiled flooring faster. But in this case, you will have to spend a lot of money. But it is recommended to lay cable systems under the tiles, since they are designed to be poured into an adhesive solution or screed.
Specialists require about 500 rubles for 1 m2 when laying heating cable, and the film system will be installed for 800 rubles. for 1 m². But the price for 1 m² of a water-heated floor device is at least 380 rubles. Therefore, the decision must be made taking into account the family budget.
The article examined in detail the main types of underfloor heating. You can install such a heating system yourself. The main thing is to follow the instructions and listen to the recommendations of the masters.
It will not work for sure to answer the question of which warm floors are better. Any system will cope with the task assigned to it. The priority factor is product quality, so you should buy only certified products.