Working processes in medium and large industries and construction sites are often associated with the use of lifting machines and installations. Cargo movement operations are also mandatory in the supply chains serving small shops, hotels, catering establishments, etc. Each time the use of such equipment poses a certain danger both for the materials being served and for the working personnel. To protect lifting equipment and minimize the risk of accidents, you should carefully follow the rules for their operation and maintenance.
What is meant by lifting gear?
Equipment that is used to work with cargo, in our time is represented by an extensive range. Chains, winches, hoists and hooks with drives can be directly attributed to the mechanisms. These are the least maintenance-intensive devices, but they can also perform very demanding loading and unloading tasks. The category of machines includes all kinds of loader cranes, construction hoists, excavators, etc. Warehouse hoisting machines and mechanismsshould also be included in a separate category. As a rule, this segment is formed at enterprises by stackers, forklifts, maneuverable lifts and various self-propelled power plants. Each of the noted types of lifting equipment has its own abilities in terms of working functions and the possibility of operating in certain conditions.
Rules for preparing equipment for operation
Preparatory processes may vary depending on the conditions of use of the equipment and its characteristics. Most often, preparation involves a control inspection for the presence of malfunctions. Both the surface of the case and the internal filling are subject to revisions. The power plant, which is used on the same cranes and stackers, deserves special attention. If necessary, the responsible employee renews the engine oil or transmission fluid. In addition, lifting mechanisms are carefully checked in terms of law enforcement agencies, with the help of which working actions are carried out. At this stage, the reliability of fastening of functional components or attachments, the integrity of parts, as well as the condition of the drive connection are assessed. In some cases, the control electronics of the mechanism are also adjusted.
Requirements for service personnel
Again, a lot of this type of requirement depends on the specifics of a particular object, but there are also general or at least common rules foradmission of employees to lifting work. These must be adults who have passed a medical examination and special training for work in this field. In particular, members of the maintenance team must know the sources of danger and means of ensuring protection, be able to detect malfunctions and defects in equipment, and perform general adjustment and repair operations. Also, the list of duties includes the ability to mount lifting mechanisms and configure them to work with objects of certain parameters. In particular, this applies to the installation of hoists, winches and attachments. Requirements for operators of lifting machines are already specialized and require their own specifics depending on the type of equipment.
Rules for the operation of lifting mechanisms
The function of each piece of lifting equipment is implemented within certain limits, due to general and local technical requirements. In particular, the enterprise can draw up its own technological maps, work projects and instructions, according to which the personnel performs their tasks. For example, the basic rules for the operation of equipment include the use of a system of signals between different participants in the process. The exchange of signs helps the safe and efficient use of lifting equipment. The rules, in particular, prescribe in advance to approve the procedures for the mutual exchange of signals between crane operators and slingers. The instructions also provide for the movement and installation of cargo on a preliminarydesignated place. Deviation in direction can disrupt coordination in other areas of the site and provoke unforeseen risks. The results of performing work actions with violations are recorded in a special logbook.
Working with a large mass inevitably leads to wear of any equipment. The main task of the employees responsible for maintenance is to prevent breakdowns of mechanical elements, since the risk of their occurrence in the process of performing work actions can turn into a tragedy. Accordingly, maintenance involves regular inspection of the power structure for wear, excessive deformation, cracks and other defects. Along with this, there are quite standard mandatory measures that are not related to malfunctions. In this part, the maintenance of lifting mechanisms may include the replacement of technical fluids, belt components, updating fasteners, etc. A special project is drawn up for repair work with recommendations on how to carry it out.
What is prohibited when operating a hoist?
Compliance with security rules imposes many restrictions on the actions of participants in the workflow. For example, any manipulation of loads that have not been freed from fixing or nearby materials is prohibited. Also, you can not lift the load if other materials that do not have special fastenings lie on its surface.It happens that during the disturbed movement of a crane or mounted manipulator, slingers try to correct the object from the ground. This also cannot be done, and for such actions, safety chains with ropes are provided in advance. In addition, lifting mechanisms cannot be used to feed transportable objects into the openings of windows, balconies and doors. Exceptions include only cases where special venues are provided for reception.
All of these rules, regulations and guidelines are designed to ensure efficient, productive and, most importantly, safe operation. To date, the operation of lifting mechanisms is quite closely related to electronic automation systems. The entry of new segments of the management infrastructure also requires special skills from the staff. On the other hand, these same systems with multifunctional relays and control modules in some cases increase the reliability of operations by eliminating the risk of operator error.