Local treatment facilities. Treatment facilities for a private house: reviews, prices

Local treatment facilities. Treatment facilities for a private house: reviews, prices
Local treatment facilities. Treatment facilities for a private house: reviews, prices

In accordance with existing standards, a modern country estate should have local treatment facilities. The building must necessarily be connected either to the main pipeline, or have its own filtration system. Next, we will consider in more detail what the treatment facilities are for a private house and an industrial organization.

local treatment facilities

General information

If we talk about a comfortable mansion, then, of course, it should have hot and cold water. It is necessary for taking a bath or shower, washing, washing dishes, cleaning, watering. In this regard, sewerage treatment facilities are an integral part of the engineering communications of the building. Their device is one of the most important matters in planning and construction. Of course, the best option would be to send the wastewater to an appropriate general line. But it is not always possible to connect to it or it is completely absent. On someplots, the owners equip special cesspools. However, as practice shows, this option is extremely inconvenient. In addition, the pits are unsafe and quite fetid. Today's realities dictate new standards for wastewater treatment.

Key Features

Local wastewater treatment plants are used to filter and divert them away from the building. Liquid waste in a purified form enters the environment: river, ditch, soil, etc. Local treatment facilities, in essence, are:

  • Customized. This means that the systems work directly for the objects for which they are designed.
  • Gravity. In other words, the systems operate on the principle of gravity flow of liquid waste. But some local wastewater treatment plants are equipped with pumps.
  • Bio-mechanical. This means that local wastewater treatment plants operate in an integrated manner. This combines biological and mechanical methods of filtration and diversion.
  • Household. This characteristic indicates that the systems are designed exclusively for filtering liquid waste from personal subsidiary plots.

Of course, there are also local treatment facilities for enterprises. Systems used in industrial applications are complex in design, as large volumes of waste must be handled.

wastewater treatment plants for enterprises

Waste classification

Household waste is divided into two main types: black andgrey. The latter include water used for washing, cleaning, bathing or bathing. Black is liquid waste from the toilet. They make up about 30% of the total volume of wastewater. At the same time, they contain 90% nitrogen, 50% phosphorus and many fecal bacteria. All this must be filtered and neutralized. Stormwater and drainage flows should not enter the sewage treatment plant for the house. Otherwise, serious disruption to the systems is likely.

How the settings work

Local treatment facilities for businesses and households process waste in two stages. On the first one, preliminary filtration is carried out, on the second - final filtration. The final stage is also called "finishing" by experts. Next, we will consider both stages in more detail.


It is carried out in a special tank. It is called a septic tank or a septic tank. Particles that are present in drains accumulate at the bottom. This sediment undergoes slow fermentation over time. In the process, some of the contaminants are dissolved in water. The remaining volume accumulates at the bottom in the form of mineral insoluble substances. In the septic tank, a foam or film (usually from fats) forms on the surface. For the fermentation process to be more efficient, at least three days are needed. In this regard, a requirement is established for the size of settling tanks, depending on the volume of effluents entering the preliminary treatment. In general, the tasks of a septic tank include separating a liquid with soluble components from insoluble fractions (in other words -mechanical sludge), as well as the decomposition of organic contaminants with the help of anaerobic bacteria, which are always present in the waste (biological process). As a result, after preliminary filtration, suspension of suspension and clarification of liquid waste occurs. At the outlet of the septic tank, the drains are cleaned by approximately 65%.

cost of local treatment facilities

Second stage

Postcleaning can occur in devices of various types. All of these designs are designed to create optimal conditions (of which oxygen access is the main one) for anaerobic bacteria, thanks to which the final filtration of the waste flowing from the sump is carried out. The longer the contact with O2, the better will be the oxidation and subsequent decomposition of ammonia and organic nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites.

Biological Neutralization Systems

Sand and biological filters, soil drainage, absorbing well are used for post-treatment. Their principle of operation is borrowed from nature. It is based on the natural ability of the soil to self-clean. Its essence lies in the preliminary distribution of waste in small volumes on the filter surface. There they begin to interact with anaerobic bacteria. Then mechanical and biological purification gradually takes place, but without "oxygen starvation". When leaving the system, the waste is filtered by 95%. This indicator meets the established sanitary requirements. Then wastewater is discharged into ditches, ditches, etc.

los local treatment facilities

General recommendations for choosing VOCs

Local treatment facilities have one capacity or another. To determine the appropriate volume, it is necessary to multiply the consumption rate by the number of people living in the building. For example, for the Moscow region, this figure is from 680 to 1000 l / day (based on four people). As mentioned above, the waste entering the wastewater treatment plant must be kept there for at least three days. As a result, the volume of the sump is about 2 m33. Then you need to choose the right material from which the septic tank is made. This is important because, firstly, treatment facilities for a private house are buried in the ground. Therefore, septic tanks must withstand the movements and stresses of the soil. Secondly, from the inside it is affected by an aggressive environment, which can be compared with sea water in terms of the destructive effect. Thus, the materials from which sewage treatment plants are made must be durable and resistant to various negative factors, but at the same time light. As a rule, steel with a protective coating, reinforced concrete and polyethylene are used for the manufacture of equipment. The first material corrodes quite quickly. Some consumers choose steel structures. But this material is not resistant to aggressive environments. In this regard, attention should be paid to the quality of the coating. In addition, steel containers have a rather impressive weight and additional equipment is required for their transportation.Reinforced concrete structures are hygroscopic. And, as the buyers themselves note, this is fraught with the penetration of groundwater or, conversely, pollution with their waste. Polyethylene is the most popular among consumers today. Buyers note its lightness, corrosion resistance, durability. Polyethylene provides reliable tightness in connections. The only thing you need to pay attention to is the strength of the material.

local wastewater treatment plants

Plot features

When choosing a post-treatment system, it is necessary to pay special attention to the composition of the soil, the level of groundwater. Companies that install filtration systems, as a rule, offer a full range of services. It includes hydrogeological research, design, installation of the station, diversion, as well as warranty and post-warranty maintenance of equipment. The cost of turnkey local treatment facilities depends on the type of soil and the volume of the tanks. The price of commissioning works is from 7,500 rubles, installation of the unit is from 24,200 rubles.

Soil drainage

Many owners of suburban real estate choose this method of post-treatment, considering it the easiest. According to the users themselves, ground drainage gives an excellent filtration result. This method is used in areas with low groundwater and sandy soil. Ground drainage is an integral part of local treatment facilities. In it, waste is fed through a system of pipes to the place of their subsequent filtration. There they are cleansedcrushed stone and sand in the presence of anaerobic bacteria. Only after that the filtered effluents enter the ground. Among the shortcomings, consumers note the low power of the system and the need to ensure the receipt of small portions of waste. Otherwise, they will not have time to effectively neutralize. Therefore, the length of the drainage should be proportional to the permeability of the soil and the amount of runoff. The system is laid to a depth of 0.5-0.8 m. This is due to the fact that there are no anaerobic bacteria below 1.2 meters. The width of the ditch for the pipe is 1 meter. For 1 person, about 12 meters (linear) of drainage are accepted (according to the standard). The total length of the system should be no more than 120 m. When installing this system, there should be no trees along the pipe. This is due to the fact that their roots will interfere with the normal functioning of the drainage.

piping structures for wastewater

Absorption well

This design is a small size ventilated device. It is intended for the treatment of a small amount of wastewater in permeable soils. This device does not require drain pipes. From the septic tank, the drains are sent to a concrete well, which is loaded with gravel and sand. Further, the waste is filtered and through the holes in the walls go into the ground. As a rule, absorption wells are popular with owners of small areas where drainage cannot be arranged, or owners of buildings for 1-2 people.

Sand filter

It is designed for a sufficiently large load and may well become an alternative for ground drainage. Sandythe filter, according to many consumers, is the best solution for a site with difficult hydrogeological conditions. The design is a multi-layer device. Inside, drainage pipes are installed in two floors. During construction, a layer of soil is removed, and gravel and sand are laid instead. Waste from the upper floor of the pipes passes the filter, and then, already cleaned, is removed through the drainage of the first level into the receiving well. The depth of the trench in this case is at least two meters.

sewage treatment plant for home

Biological filter

Many owners of suburban real estate consider this system to be universal. Numerous user reviews testify to this. A biological filter can be used not only with a high level of occurrence of clay soils and groundwater, but also with a small area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe site, when drainage is not possible. The so-called "loading" enters the container - a porous and fairly light material. As a rule, pozzolan, expanded clay, coke are used. These materials are both a filter and a habitat for anaerobic microorganisms. Pre-cleaned in the sump, the effluent is distributed over the surface and, filtered, enters the bottom. Further, the liquid accumulates in the receiving well and then discharged into the ditch.

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