In the construction market of roofing materials flexible shingles are quite popular. This is due to its unique performance characteristics. Among the well-known manufacturers are the firms "Tegola", "Siplast" and "Shinglas". The bituminous tile is applied practically in any climatic conditions.
To carry out roofing work with shingles you will need:
- marking cord;
- metal scissors;
- self-tapping screws;
Bitumen shingles: material prices
The cost of roofing the roof depends on its area, the quality of the material and the cost of the builders' services, if they are required. In general, taking into account the lining layer, components and construction defects, the average cost varies in the range of 400-1000 rubles/m2.
Pros and cons
The material has a number of qualities that favorably distinguish it in the construction market of roofing materials, namely:
- corrosion resistance;
- minimum installation waste;
- good sound and heat insulation qualities;
- water resistant;
- resistance to temperature extremes;
- light weight;
And this is not a complete list of the advantages that shingles have. The prices for this type of roofing material are relatively low. In many ways, the constantly high demand for it is connected with this.
- UV unstable;
- susceptibility to mold, fungus;
- low water and vapor permeability;
- relative fire safety (melts but does not burn).
Tiles are laid on a pre-prepared base. It should be a solid, continuous covering of moisture resistant plywood or OSB boards. Grooved or edged boards are also suitable. On plywood, you can first walk with a grinding wheel.
Sheets or boards are laid parallel to the ridge and joined on the rafter board. At the same time, they make sure that several joints of the sheathing sheets of adjacent rows do not work out on one board.
At the end of the preparation of the base, a special lining carpet is placed on it with the sand side up. It can be purchased at the place of purchase of tiles. It simultaneously performs two functions: it levels the surface and gives it waterproofing properties. ToIn addition, bituminous tiles, when using a lining layer, get better adhesion to the surface. It is nailed in 20 cm increments.
Slopes with an angle of inclination up to 30 degrees are completely covered with roofing paper in several layers. In the second case, only overlap with a margin of 150 and 80 mm vertically and horizontally, respectively. The design of the ridge is carried out using a special ridge-cornice tile. It is divided into three parts by perforation and alternately nailed on both sides at the junction of the slopes. Before the procedure, remove the protective film from the material.
Laying shingles: rules and features
When calculating the required amount of material, it is important to take into account certain nuances. For example, it is designed for roofing coverings, the angle of inclination of which is in the range of 15-85 degrees. The instructions indicate an angle of 45 degrees. Deviation from this indicator leads to an increase or decrease in the amount of consumed tiles. For example, the smaller the angle of the roof, the more material will be required.
It is possible to achieve a quality result only if the basic rules are followed:
- material is stored in closed packages indoors;
- backing carpet is stored upright;
- manufacturers recommend installing shingles at a temperature of at least 5 degrees;
- before laying the material in the cold season, it must first be placed in a heated room (at least 24 hours).
Soft tiles are laid without using a burner. It is used for bituminous welded roofing. The protective film is removed from the inside of the material, after which it is laid on the prepared coating. When the outside temperature is high enough, the adhesive surface of the shingles will bond firmly to the substrate without assistance. In cold weather, a hot air gun is used for a similar effect. You can additionally strengthen the material using special glue.
Bituminous tiles in different packages may have a different shade. Therefore, it is recommended to use a separate package for each slope. In the case when the slope area is large enough, several packages are used. The elements of the material are mixed, so that the shades are distributed evenly throughout the coating.
It is important to remember that at high temperatures the tile becomes soft and easily amenable to mechanical stress (can be deformed). Therefore, in such conditions, work on the roof is moved using ladders or other devices.
Each individual tile element must be fixed separately. To do this, use screw or ruffed nails, as well as staples. The latter are used when bituminous tiles are attached to the base without a backing layer.
Nails must be made of metal, pre-treated with anti-corrosion agents. 4 nails are driven into individual shingles at a distance of 2.5 cm from the sides and14.5 mm from the bottom line of the tiles.
Nails are driven in until their heads are at the same level as the shingles. If they protrude, the material laid above may be damaged, and if they are pressed in, moisture will accumulate in the resulting recess, and the fastener will collapse over time.
The intended purpose of bituminous glue is additional strengthening of material elements in difficult places: adjoining tiles to walls, on a ridge, in valleys. It is also used at low ambient temperatures. Canned glue is smeared with a metal spatula, and it is squeezed out of the cylinders with a special gun. If the temperature outside is low, then the bituminous glue is preheated (it hardens already at 10 degrees Celsius). The glued sheets are pressed with force to the base.
The first stage is fixing the cornice and wind slats on the lining layer with nails or screws. Nails are driven in in a checkerboard pattern along the entire length of the plank in increments of 10 cm.
After that, the shingle for the cornices is laid over the mounted plank. The installation of bituminous tiles in this case depends on its type. Some manufacturers recommend leaving a margin of 1 cm between the bottom edge of the shingle and the eaves. In other cases, an overhang of 1-1.5 cm of tiles is performed above the eaves. Often, manufacturers do not provide special cornice shingles. In this case, you should cut off the usual ones and lay out the first line of material on the cornice, gluing them end-to-end.
Installationmaterial is carried out from the eaves. The shingles are laid from the midline of the slope on the sides (left and right). The second row is laid so that the interval between the lower edges of the cornice row and the second line is 1-2 cm. This will create a visually straight line when viewed from the ground.
If the house to be covered with shingles is located in an area with strong winds, the spacing between shingles will decrease. This will make the coverage more reliable.
How to achieve a beautiful roof?
Knowledge of the intricacies of the material and practical experience - what requires shingles. You can organize an attractive design of the roof with your own hands, but for this it is important to understand its design features. For example, when avoiding protruding roof elements, the distance between adjacent shingles should be a multiple of 1 m. This is done so that subsequent courses can be installed correctly.
Before you start laying the material, a slope is drawn along the lining layer (litter) using ordinary chalk, its middle line is indicated. In addition, marks are made for every 4 rows of tiles. In the case when there is a chimney or other structural element on the slope, vertical lines are marked from them. With the observance of technology, the roofing from bituminous tiles will receive an aesthetic and attractive appearance.
For the free exit of air from under the roof, holes are made in it, the diameter of which corresponds to the installed aerators. They are fixedwith nails or glue. After that, tiles are laid on top of their aprons, the ends of which are cut out.
Skates and valleys
On the ridge, the shingles are cut along its line. After a ventilation gap has been made in the ridge, the upper edge of the roof is covered with ordinary or cornice shingles. It is important to remember that bending the shingle without warming it up can lead to the formation of cracks on it. The joints of the ridge coating with the roof are covered with bituminous mastic, that is, they are waterproofed.
It is also important to remember to waterproof the valleys: each shingle that falls on the gutter is cut and secured to the other side of the gutter with nails or glue.