How to build a bath: the choice of materials, wiring, construction process, finishing, insulation

How to build a bath: the choice of materials, wiring, construction process, finishing, insulation
How to build a bath: the choice of materials, wiring, construction process, finishing, insulation

Various baths are traditional for many peoples of the world. Of course, their microclimate may differ, but the principle is the same. It is not surprising that the usual Russian bath, Finnish or mixed version remain popular in the CIS countries. It improves well-being and he alth, and is often just a place of rest and leisure for companies and families. Many land owners sooner or later wonder how to properly build a bath. It requires a responsible approach to construction in order to provide the necessary microclimate, comfort for relaxation, as well as maximum durability in extreme conditions.

Traditional bath

Where to start?

First, let's find out if you need to get permission to build a bath on the site. Since the bathhouse belongs to auxiliary facilities, and not to capital, engineering or business activities, a permit is not required. It is only important to comply with sanitary standards, and then there will be no claims from the inspection authorities. Also, if the bath is part of the house and was included in the project at the approval stage, additional registration is notrequired.

Permission will be required if the bath is used in business for profit. It is also necessary if it is attached to the main residential building.

Sanitary standards

In addition to knowing how to properly build a bath, you also need to understand the technical documentation of SNiP in order to comply with sanitary and fire safety standards. It regulates the distances between buildings, from buildings to a fence or a road.

So be aware of:

  • The distance to the fence is not less than a meter, if drainage is provided. When the drain is outside, the distance is at least 3 meters.
  • Distance to the road. No closer than 3 meters to a country road and no closer than 5 meters to full roads.
  • According to the type of drainage system. In case of draining directly into the ground, it is supposed to build no closer than 8 meters to a residential building and a well.
  • Based on materials. If refractory materials were used to build a bath, the distance to the nearest buildings is not closer than 6 meters. If there are wooden floors - 8 meters. Between a wooden building and a building made of refractory materials - 10. If both the sauna and the neighboring building are wooden, the minimum distance is 15 meters.

When determining the minimum distance, choose the largest constraint for the case in question.

Selection of materials

Each material has its advantages and disadvantages. However, when choosing, do not forget about the size of the site and fire safety. The following materials are commonly used.


The construction of log baths can be called a classic. There is no need to say that this is an environmentally friendly material, absolutely harmless to he alth. The wooden bath looks attractive and rich, and inside is very cozy, not to mention the incredible smell. High thermal insulation properties will keep heat as long as possible.

Spacious Finnish bath

Important! When choosing wood, avoid resin-producing species. From the heat, the tree will begin to exude it abundantly, which will make the walls sticky, damage the varnish or other impregnation.

Let's highlight the following types of wooden baths, for the construction of which were used:

  • Logs. Perhaps one of the most attractive options. However, it will cost much more than others. Due to the fact that the logs are laid in a kind of puzzle using grooves, the design requires high-quality processing, the availability of appropriate skills and tools. The large weight of the structure will require a strong foundation. Due to these features, it is not recommended to build with your own hands.
  • Brus. Due to the rectangular shape, the construction resembles working with bricks. It is quite easy to do it yourself: no special tools and skills are required, you just need to order the required amount of timber. Less material and light weight eliminate the need for a foundation, making a smooth, solid base.
  • Frame bath. An easy way to build with your own hands. Lightweight, simple and good insulating properties, but will require special handlingwood to increase the vapor barrier properties.
Bath for one

When building a bath on the site, using wood as a material for walls, we must remember that it rots, and parasites can start. It will not be enough to process once, the tree will have to be constantly monitored and looked after.

Aerated concrete

Aerated concrete is deservedly one of the most used materials for construction. Environmental friendliness, light weight, ease of processing, even greater than that of wood, high sound and heat insulation properties, fire safety - these are not all the advantages of aerated concrete. Great for do-it-yourself construction. Low cost also needs to be highlighted.

In addition to aerated concrete, there are a number of similar materials, such as foam blocks and polystyrene concrete. All three materials absorb moisture, which is why it is necessary to carry out finishing work, both external and internal. Expanded polystyrene concrete will also require high-quality thermal insulation due to the vulnerability of expanded polystyrene granules to high temperatures, which makes it limitedly suitable for building a bath. Finishing materials can significantly increase the cost of construction.


Eco-friendly and fireproof material, common and quite cheap. A cellular block is perfect for better thermal insulation properties. A brick bath does not require external processing, which reduces the cost and facilitates construction. However, more time is needed, and high-quality masonry will require special skills.

Brick is also used with other materials to properly build a bath from both foam block and wood. It is much more heat tolerant, making it ideal for walls adjacent to a stove.

Developing a project

Before starting construction, it is necessary to work out the design of the bath: choose what rooms it will consist of, the required capacity, and so on.

Light bath

For example, choose a simple and classic layout:

  • Let's start from the porch. Necessary to protect the interior from precipitation or to get out into the air during rain.
  • Tambour. Necessary for storing outerwear and street shoes. But the main task is to create a buffer zone to keep warm if you need to go outside.
  • Recreation room. It is simply harmful to stay in a steam room for a long time, but the matter does not end with one visit. For this reason, a recreation area is needed. Usually it contains a closet for things, a table with benches or sofas, possibly a refrigerator, kettle, TV or radio. Serves for rest and leisure between visits to the bath itself.
  • Shower room. The contrast of cold water after a hot steam bath is good for he alth. In addition, the high temperature makes you sweat a lot, cleansing the pores and removing toxins from the body. All this dirt must be washed off immediately.
  • Steam room. The most important part of any bath. It must have good thermal insulation in order to retain the necessary heat and microclimate. The construction of baths from logs or timber will helpdoing a great job.

When designing, it is necessary to determine the area of ​​the bath. The washing room can be the size of a shower stall, the porch can at least cover the entrance from the rain, and the vestibule is sufficient to accommodate shoes and outerwear. But the steam room and the relaxation room are selected strictly individually, depending on how many people will use the bath, whether it is planned to invite guests. If there is not enough space or you need to make it even easier, you can limit yourself to a steam room and dressing room.

wooden sauna construction

Construction stages

Regardless of whether the bath will be built of brick, timber or aerated concrete, the stages will be similar, but will have their own individual characteristics. Let's take a closer look at all the stages in order, starting with the foundation.


When the design stage is over and it is necessary to proceed directly to construction, we start with the construction of the foundation. To facilitate the task, you can choose one of the simplest options, namely tape. It is necessary to take the project of the bath and mark the location of the external and internal walls, pulling the threads on pegs, in the area allotted for construction. We should not forget about sanitary standards.

Further along the markings, we dig a trench, a depth of 55-70 cm plus 20 cm for backfilling, not narrower than the blocks or timber from which the wall will be built. We take the width with a margin for placing the formwork, which will serve as a form for pouring concrete. For the future base, choose a height of 150 mm.

Whenthe trench will be ready, its bottom is covered with coarse sand to a height of 20 cm. It is advisable not to pour everything at once, but in layers, carefully tamping each layer. For best results, you can moisten with water, which will make the sand heavier and more pliable. Next, along the contour of the trench, we install the formwork.

Before pouring concrete, it is necessary to lay reinforcement. Do not lay it directly on the sand. You can use stones or bricks to hold it up. A three-dimensional frame is created from reinforcing bars, and horizontal and vertical bars are fastened together by wire or welding. Next, the concrete is poured. It is recommended to do everything in one go.

Water supply

The steam room for the Russian bath, as well as the shower room, will require water, which must also be diverted. The method of implementation will depend on whether the site has access to a sewer or water supply. If so, then we simply bring it down the drain to the location of the steam room and shower, and also, possibly, under the washbasin in the recreation area. We also provide water supply. The branching of the pipes must be done immediately, since then the floors in the bath will be insulated with expanded clay or other filler. It is recommended to choose propylene pipes due to their durability.

If there is no water supply or sewerage, it will be necessary to divert water to the cleaning device used on the site, or arrange a sump. For water supply it is necessary to drill a well using a pump. An artesian well is relatively inexpensive.

Sex in the bath

How tobuild a bath and make it easier for yourself? It is effective and easy to use a mixture of expanded clay with concrete. Abroad, it is used in half of the homes, due to its simplicity and efficiency.

Just like with the foundation, the soil under the future floor is compacted. After that, a sand floor is laid, which is also compacted and leveled. After that, parts of the brick are laid out, and a mesh of reinforcement is installed on them. After that, you can fill it with a solution of concrete and expanded clay. It is not necessary to fill the foundation completely, as you will need to leave room for the screed and slope for draining.

Construction of outer walls

Before erecting walls, waterproofing of the foundation is required. For example, if the walls will be built from a bar, a roofing material is laid on the foundation tape, and a bar of the lower trim is placed on top. The crown is attached to the foundation with anchor bolts. Waterproofing is mandatory.

Wall construction technology will depend on the chosen material. For example, when building from a bar, it must be taken into account that it will sit down in height. It is necessary to put insulation between the bars. In the case of using foam blocks, we simply glue them together. Foam concrete does not settle.


It is important to equip the ceiling in the bath with high-quality thermal and waterproofing, since the hottest and most humid air always goes up. The construction of the roof of the bath begins with the installation of floor beams. A vapor barrier is stretched between them, on top of which it is already poured, if it is expanded clay, or laid out, in the case of mineral wool, thermal insulation. Furtherboard flooring is installed if you plan to use the attic. Often this is where the switchboard is installed to eliminate possible contact with moisture. After that, you can already proceed to the construction of the roof itself.

Spacious lounge

Insulation and interior decoration

In order to properly build a bathhouse with your own hands, both from aerated concrete and from timber, it is necessary to insulate the steam room and provide waterproofing. The insulation is always located between the waterproofing on both sides. This is important due to the high humidity in the steam room.

For the construction of a partition to which the oven will be attached, use a brick. It tolerates heat better than foam concrete or wood.

bath projects

The most popular is the interior of the bath made of wood. It creates a pleasant atmosphere and exudes a pleasant smell. Resin-producing breeds should not be chosen. The tree will require special protective treatment.

Interior decoration of a log bath requires only special impregnation to protect the wood from moisture. Additional thermal insulation is not required.


How to make electrical wiring in the bath? All metal parts of electrical appliances must be grounded. It is better to choose lamps with plastic cases, and a waterproof one will be required in the bath. Due to the increased danger, it is better to install a separate RCD and an automatic device for each room, and put the shield away from the steam room. Often it is placed in the attic. For a bath, ensure good grounding with high-qualityoutline.

It is quite possible to correctly build a bathhouse with your own hands, both from wood and from other materials. However, some steps, like materials, will require special skills and tools. For this reason, it is better to entrust the construction to professionals. This is especially recommended when installing the oven, due to high temperatures and the risk of fire. Before construction, it is imperative to take into account sanitary and fire safety standards.

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