Problems of ecology and depletion of natural resources are increasingly forcing humanity to think about using alternative energy sources. One way to solve the problem is to use solar-powered street lighting. Such lamps have high performance characteristics, which allows them to be used in many areas of life. In this material, we will talk about the types and features of solar-powered street lighting fixtures, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as areas of use.
Street lighting powered by solar panels is used to illuminate highways, highways and roads. Such lanterns do not require laying communications, therefore they can be installed on remote sections of highways. They are used for nightlighting of parking lots, stops of urban and suburban transport, entrance area of entrances. In private houses and household plots, solar-powered street lighting lanterns are used for general illumination of the territory, paths, outbuildings, decorative illumination of the landscape, architectural and sculptural compositions, and reservoirs.
Separately, it is worth mentioning solar-powered tourist lamps. With them, outdoor recreation becomes more comfortable. They have several modes of operation, including emergency, with which you can send a distress signal.
Design and principle of operation
Solar-powered lamps for street lighting have a fairly simple design, and the size depends on the power of the light element used. The lamp consists of:
- polycrystalline solar cell;
- photo relay;
- LED lamp;
The reason for using a polycrystalline battery in the device is that it is able to convert even scattered sunlight into electrical energy. That is, the device will work effectively even in cloudy weather. It should be noted that the efficiency of polycrystals is somewhat lower than that of monocrystalline batteries. However, the latter cannot produce electricity in the absence of direct sunlight. The lower efficiency of polycrystals makes it necessary to increase the area of the battery in order to store enough energy.for full illumination of the territory at night.
A photo relay is a device that reacts to changes in the illumination of the surrounding space and automatically turns on the lamp at dusk and turns it off at dawn.
The battery is designed to store energy. The greater the power of the built-in lamp, the more energy is required to accumulate, the more storage space is required.
Solar-powered luminaires use LED bulbs exclusively. This is due to their low power consumption. To power an incandescent lamp, the area of the solar battery must be 8-10 times larger. However, the light output will be identical.
The reflector is used to scatter light, producing softer and more even illumination. Diffusers are used for the same purpose.
The body of solar-powered LED street lights is usually made of aluminum or plastic.
The type of support depends on the purpose of the lamp. Devices for lighting park areas, parking lots, highways and highways are installed on poles. Solar-powered street lighting for domestic purposes is made in the form of simple structures stuck into the ground or suspended from a loop.
Lamps for street lighting must be protected from moisture and dust ingress into the housing. Sealing is achieved through the use of silicone gaskets in the design. The degree of protection of the lamp is indicated on the packaging. The marking consists of an IP index and a two-digit numericcode. The first symbol indicates the degree of protection of the lamp from dust, and the second - from water. For street lighting, models with an IP of at least 65 are suitable. They safely withstand bad weather and heavy rain. To organize the lighting of a pond or pool, it is better to use lamps with IP67. They are not afraid of full immersion in water.
Solar-powered appliances have a number of advantages that set them apart from street lighting counterparts.
- Autonomy. Luminaires do not require laying communications and can be installed anywhere without obtaining permission from the relevant authorities.
- Economy. The device runs on free solar energy, so the cost ends at the stage of purchase of the device.
- Mobility. Most models can be moved to another location or removed at any time. The exception is park, facade models, as well as built-in lamps. The first are pillars, they are mounted in a mortgage way or poured with concrete, the second are wall models.
- Safety. LED lamps do not heat up, so there is no risk of fire or burns for children and pets.
- Sustainability. Solar-powered lanterns do not emit hazardous substances and do not pollute the environment.
- Convenience. The fixtures turn on and off automatically, so there is no need to manually control the lights.
- Durability. According to manufacturers, the service life of suchfixtures is 10 years old.
- Wide range and varied designs. On sale you can find models in the form of pillars, wall-mounted, built-in, hanging, in the form of garlands. The design also pleases with variety, some decorative lighting fixtures look like works of art.
Despite the impressive list of advantages, solar-powered lamps also have disadvantages.
- The brightness and duration of the device depends on the intensity of sunlight during the day. In cloudy weather, the battery will not be able to store enough energy, the light emitted by the device will be dim, and the operating time will be shortened.
- The luminaire must be installed so that the sun's rays fall on the polycrystalline battery. In a shady place, the device will not be able to store energy.
- In the event of a breakdown, the lamp cannot be repaired. This is due to the inability to restore the factory tightness of the case. At the first rain, it will fail again.
The price of the device directly depends on the quality of parts and assembly. Chinese-made models are cheap, but they will not last the stated period. Luminaires from trusted manufacturers are many times more expensive
When organizing street lighting, several types of light are used, which differ in their functional purpose and type of design of devices. This is general, technical, security and decorative lighting. Consider each typemore.
This view is designed to create full coverage of the area, comparable to daylight. In order to save electricity in everyday life, solar-powered lamps are increasingly being used. Street lighting for general purposes is organized using park lamps on poles, wall models that are mounted on the facades of buildings, structures and fences.
Technical lighting is used to increase the comfort of movement around the site. It is used to illuminate the porch, garden paths, stairs, outbuildings, garage. In order to organize technical lighting, wall and pendant models of lamps, built-in, as well as small garden lamps on a leg that are stuck into the ground are installed.
Security lighting is designed to deter intruders. The most effective are models with a solar-powered motion sensor. Street lighting of this type is mounted near the entrances to the house, garage, along the perimeter of the site. The design usually uses an ultrasonic motion sensor. It shows a high efficiency of object recognition, however, it causes some discomfort to pets. Often security lighting is combined with technical lighting and similar models of lamps are used: wall-mounted, suspended, on a leg.
Decorative lighting is usedto illuminate flower beds, rockeries, landscape relief differences, sculptural groups, facades, pools and ponds. Outdoor luminaires are usually small in size and have low lamp power. They can be made in the form of balls, flowers, animals, mythical creatures. Often, decorative lamps use RGB lamps that are capable of emitting light of different colors. Small hanging lanterns and LED garlands are used to illuminate bushes, trees, arbors and outdoor terraces.
Street solar-powered LED lighting is increasingly used in homes and public places. This is mainly due to the desire to reduce energy costs and concern for the environment. Solar-powered lamps are used to illuminate roads, parking lots, public transport stops, entrance areas of porches and private houses, and illuminate a garden plot.