Unlike stone houses, wooden houses are called breathable. Breathing contributes to the constant exchange of air through the wood. This material is the most sought after. Coniferous wood is mainly used, which has high qualities for heat saving and sound insulation. Sometimes oak logs are used for the lower plinth for laying the first crown, which are given a rectangular shape, fitting them under the foundation.
For a wooden house, any of many types of foundation is suitable, but the usual tape one, raised above the ground for a long distance, is mainly used to raise the plinth of a wooden building higher from dampness. To protect against moisture and water, it is treated with waterproofing mastic. If the project has a basement, then waterproofing is carried out under the entire foundation for a wooden house.
The first crown of logs is laid on a base treated with waterproofing mastic and waterproofing gasket, which is used as bituminous material. Logs for the floor are laid in the lower window sill, whichtogether with the crown of the lower row, they strengthen the base. All subsequent rows of logs are stacked in locks in the form of a bowl.
The logs are connected to each other in castles with wooden spikes, which are made of hardwood. In order for all the crowns to have a strictly horizontal arrangement, the thin edges of the logs are connected to the thick ones. For window openings, vertical window logs are installed, which are fixed to the upper log of the window sill by cutting the end of the window log into the lower and upper log of the window sill and window sill. The attic is given a rectangular shape for better fastening of the truss frame. In addition to the spiked connection, the base of the attic crown is additionally reinforced with metal nails and clasps.
Foundation on floating subsidence soils
If, after examining the soil at the construction site, it is established that the soil under the future building has unstable stability, subsidence or floating structure, then, accordingly, the foundation on such soil must be resistant to subsidence or soil floating. First of all, to eliminate such negative phenomena, it is necessary to remove the surface layer of soil - at least 200 mm.
If, after removing the surface layer of soft soil, the soil remains soft and wet, you need to separate the future base from the wet soil with a layer of large stones that will compact the soft soil and create a solid base for the stone-sand cushion. The stone layer is covered with a new layer of coarse gravel and sand to create a solid stone-sand cushion. Foundation for a wooden houseon soft soils, it is desirable to build on piles or on the principle of continuous pouring of a slab foundation connected to a strip one.
The strip foundation is installed on a stone-sand cushion around the entire perimeter of the building with waterproofing of the base recessed into the ground. As a waterproofing of a stone-sand cushion, a waterproofing film or bituminous roofing material is used. The canvases are overlapped - at least 20 cm. The joints of such canvases are fastened with adhesive waterproofing mastic or adhesive tape. Do-it-yourself formwork for the strip foundation of a wooden house is made from boards with a thickness of at least 30-40 mm or from thick waterproof plywood.
The foundation is the basis of the whole building. Like any other construction, pouring has its tricks and its secrets, which are not known to those who have never de alt with foundation pouring.
The main thing for high-quality pouring of the foundation for a wooden house is a properly executed formwork. Usually boards or thick plywood sheets are used for formwork. The density of the reinforcing racks depends on the thickness of the board used. The thinner the formwork board, the more often the posts are driven to prevent the foundation from warping.
Installation is done on strictly stretched cords, starting from the corners of the building. The boards are attached to the racks hammered into the ground with nails from the inside of the formwork with their bending on the outer racks so that they can be easily unbent during disassembly. In addition to fastening the formwork boards to the posts, the posts are additionally reinforced with slopes.from the outside of the formwork.
From the inside, the formwork is reinforced with spacers, which are installed around the entire perimeter of the formwork with a frequency of at least 30-50 cm. Spacers, as usual, are nailed to the upper edge of the board. To strengthen the bottom of the formwork, the base formwork of the foundation for a wooden house is mounted. As a base, you can use reinforcing bars interconnected, which are laid on stones at the bottom of the formwork.
Preparation of concrete mortar
The solution for pouring is prepared during pouring in the amount that is supposed to be used to fill any one area. To prepare the mortar, first, the exact amount of sand or gravel is poured into a large container and cement is added in accordance with the proportions.
If a concrete solution is prepared in a ratio of 1:4, then, accordingly, one bucket of cement is required for four buckets of sand. Or for four shovels of sand - one shovel of cement. After filling the container, the components of the mixture must be thoroughly mixed to obtain a homogeneous mixture of sand and cement.
The mixture is mixed with shovels by throwing from one end of the container to the other. It is necessary to transfer cement and sand from one pile to another several times until the mass becomes homogeneous. After mixing, clean water is added in small portions to the mixture over the entire area of the container.
The mass is thoroughly mixed. The amount of water is determined empirically "by eye". Seemingly quality concretesolution is determined by shade. If the mortar has a light gray tint, then the proportion of cement and sand is maintained correctly.
If the mortar is dark gray, then the amount of cement has clearly been reduced. To correct, cement is added, and the solution is again mixed several times. With regard to viscosity, this indicator is considered the norm if the solution easily and independently, but with some tension spreads along the formwork gutters.
Filling the foundation
The deepening of the foundation depends on the quality of the surface layer of the soil on which the house will be built. If the construction site is located on sluggish, clayey, wet soil, then the depth of laying, including when a foundation needs to be replaced under a wooden house, depends on the depth of freezing of the surface. Usually, the laying depth is made below the level of soil freezing by at least 50 cm.
Gutter shields are rigidly fixed around the entire perimeter. To strengthen the shields, wooden slats, slopes, spacers, connecting planks and metal nails are used. To strengthen the base, the bottom of the trench is covered with a stone-sand cushion for at least 50 cm. Any stone of different sizes is used to backfill the bottom. To compact the pillow, large river gravel mixed with sand is poured onto a layer of stone.
For the first layer of pouring on the surface of the stone-cement cushionlay a layer of smaller solid stone. All this is poured with concrete mortar for all poured foundations, including the foundation for an old wooden house.
The first layer of concrete mortar must completely cover the laid stones. After pouring the first layer of concrete around the entire perimeter of the building, the second layer of the foundation is poured. To strengthen the top layer, small stones with a low density are thrown into the solution poured into the formwork in one row so that they do not pile on each other. In this way, filling is carried out to the top level. The top layer of concrete mortar is leveled to a smooth surface that will serve as a base for laying walls or pouring a tie beam.
Filling strip foundation with basement
If it is planned to build a basement, then on the stone-cement cushion created at the bottom of the pit, the basement is waterproofed. For waterproofing, you can use any waterproofing material. These are PVC films, roofing material or liquid bitumen. The waterproofing material is applied to the entire surface of the stone-cement pad of the basement and the surface is reinforced with reinforcing mesh to fill the reinforced concrete floor of the basement. Mortar layer thickness - 20 cm.
Actually, the walls of the foundation have a large height - the entire height of the basement. Therefore, to strengthen the walls, they need to be reinforced. For this, metal frames are used, which are welded froma metal bar with a cross section of at least 1.5-2.0 cm. Reinforcing meshes are installed around the entire perimeter into the formwork.
At the corners of the building, it is desirable to reinforce the reinforcing mesh with a slightly thicker rod. The frame is strengthened strictly in a vertical position and between each other with a thick wire to create a solid frame around the entire perimeter. Before installing the reinforcing cage, the bottom is reinforced with additional waterproofing material. As an additional waterproofing of the bottom, you can use liquid bituminous mastic.
The underground part of the foundation should be protected by the soil layer from various destructive natural factors. Sometimes both builders and owners ignore the protection of the underground part. Like, nothing will happen to her. But the underground part is also affected by such climatic factors as frost, moisture. Even strong concrete foundations can feel the impact of natural destructive elements over time.
No matter how strong the concrete is, it will have a certain percentage of the ability to absorb moisture. Its action in concrete has a devastating effect, especially under the influence of frost. Freezing moisture in concrete walls in winter and thawing in summer significantly affects the internal structure of the base. That's why there are different ways to protect all concrete structures, including when the foundation of a wooden house is being replaced, from natural factors.
Vertical and horizontalreinforcement of concrete with reinforcing bars or other metallic materials. You can also reinforce with old scrap metal, gas pipes, corners or wire. So the foundation becomes much more strong.
To protect against freezing, the method of warming the underground part with natural materials is used: clay, slag, expanded clay or foam plastic. For insulation, they dig a trench at least 50 cm wide around the foundation and cover it with a layer of insulation, and the surface is covered with clay or clay grass tussocks.
Foundation on piles
Most Canadian homes are set on a conventional strip foundation, which is laid one and a half meters deep. In the case of unfavorable wet soils, a pile foundation of a wooden house is provided - this is the simplest structure, consisting of only a few dozen piles.
Piles are a metal cylinder or pipe, which is made of high quality steel. At the end of the cylinder is a screw with which it is screwed into the soil. We can say that the pile is a large metal screw that is screwed into the soil for several meters. Each workpiece has a high compressive strength and a large load-bearing capacity. They are different in diameter and length. For example, a pile with a diameter of 108 millimeters and a blade with a diameter of 300 mm has a bearing capacity of more than 4 tons.
Advantages and disadvantages of pile foundation
The advantage of the pile foundation is that it does not require insulationfoundation of a wooden house. The second significant advantage is that the pile foundation is not afraid of temperature changes and does not require laborious waterproofing.
The main disadvantages of such a foundation are the laboriousness of its installation. If industrial piles are used, then fixtures are needed to install them - to screw them into the ground, if these are screw piles. And if they are stuffed, then their installation requires drilling or digging holes, followed by pouring concrete mortar. The next disadvantage of the pile foundation is that it can only be used in small-sized construction.
There are several types of pile foundation. These are prefabricated metal structures used for the construction of small buildings or sheds. Also, often when building a house and a cottage on wet soils, columnar piles are used, which are poured in place with a concrete solution. For small houses and summer cottages, columnar piles are made of brick or stone.
Canadian wooden house
Pile foundation is the simplest foundation, consisting of only a few dozen piles, which are a metal cylinder or pipe. It is made from high quality steel. At the end of the cylinder is a screw that drives the pile cylinder into the soil.
Most Canadian houses weigh no more than 30 tons. A pile foundation of 25 piles, which are installed under a two-story Canadian house, has a bearing capacity of more than 70 tons. Based on this, it should be noted thatthe base has a margin of safety almost twice and there is no need to think about how to insulate the foundation of a wooden house. This design does not require insulation. Of course, the calculation of the pile foundation is done by specialists who will make accurate calculations for any terrain and calculate the number of piles needed for the house, as well as the depth of their installation.