In any building, the roof is built not only for beauty. She has several purposes. Firstly, it protects housing from precipitation and any moisture getting inside. Secondly, the roof prevents heat loss. However, not every roof helps the owner of the house not to freeze in the cold season. In many ways, the amount of heat loss depends on the quality of its insulation.
Of course, the highest quality insulation is easier to achieve if you take care of the work on its implementation at the construction stage. Nevertheless, if this was not achieved in time, then, subject to the roof insulation technology and following simple recommendations, you can make the roof of your home warm and reliable even during the operation of the building.
Classic roofing cake
Typically, the layers of the roofing "pie" are arranged as follows:
- wooden or metal crate for finishing material (may be eitherscattered, and continuous);
- counter-lattice (to create a ventilation gap in the under-roof space);
- waterproofing film;
- material serving as heat insulator;
- vapor barrier material;
- sheathing for insulating materials (as well as for interior cladding);
- interior lining.
If such a "pie" is made correctly, then during the cold season, heat loss will be minimal, and in the warm season there will be no overheating of the roof space.
The waterproofing layer not only protects the insulation from environmental influences, but also prevents the penetration of moisture into the building, and also prevents condensation.
Roof insulation can be carried out both outside and inside. At the same time, internal insulation is no less important than external insulation.
How to choose insulation material?
In preparation for the insulation of the roof from the inside, you should select the material not only for insulation, but also for waterproofing. These measures are inseparable, and without protecting the roof from moisture, it will not be possible to achieve the desired result. You can achieve really high-quality roof insulation only by choosing the right one and, most importantly, by correctly applying the purchased building materials.
When choosing materials, it is recommended to pay attention to:
- Insulation resistance to mechanical damage and environmental influences.
- Material cost.
- Performance properties.
- Insulation weight. The heavier it is, the greater the load will be on the roof, and this adds new requirements to the rafter system and the crate. They have to withstand such a load. If this point is not taken into account, then the roof may collapse under the weight of materials.
In addition to the properties of the material, the configuration of the roof is of great importance, which can be:
Roof insulation from the inside
Among the various materials used for roof insulation, mineral fiber insulation is the most popular. Often, when carrying out such work, polyurethane foam is used. Plates made on the basis of polyurethane foam and fiberglass have also proven themselves well. When performing insulation, foamed glass is widely used.
There are materials on the market with different characteristics in terms of protection against moisture and thermal conductivity, as well as both completely environmentally friendly and produced with the addition of inorganic substances. On the Internet you can find a lot of information about existing heaters and their features.
Despite the abundance of building materials, roof insulation with mineral wool remains the most in demand. It is popular not even because of its affordable price, but because of its unique resistance to fire. And in terms of thermal conductivity, this material successfully competes with the rest. In addition, due to its uniqueness, mineral wool can be used for insulationroofs of various types.
Isover, glass wool and mineral wool
Manufacturing companies use different bases in the manufacture of mineral wool. The material has the following varieties:
- Fiberglass based;
- based on bas alt;
- cellulose materials;
- foam glass;
Roofing containing an insulating layer from below is called "warm roofing". Heat is retained precisely thanks to this layer. When insulating the roof from the inside, it is best to use mineral wool with fiberglass or bas alt.
When choosing fiberglass, you need to keep in mind that it has low moisture absorption properties. Therefore, when using mineral wool, you will have to incur costs for the organization of hydro and vapor barrier. This applies to both internal and external insulation.
Relatively recently, such an insulating material as isover appeared on the domestic market. This is a special insulation made using a special technology that creates an air structure in it. Due to this, the heat-conducting properties of the material are significantly increased. Izover also has excellent soundproofing properties. This contributes to the appearance of additional comfort in the room. It is also often used for soft roof insulation.
Glass wool has a number of unique advantages:
- Durability. The service life of this heaterreaches the age of fifty. Not a single heater can boast of such a service life.
- Heat insulation.
- Noise protection.
- High environmental resistance.
- Incombustibility. Glass wool should be used when insulating wooden houses. Non-combustible glass wool is the best suited for their insulation.
- High vapor barrier.
Waterproofing building materials
In addition to heaters, materials for waterproofing are also used during thermal insulation work. This protects the room from moisture. The most popular materials among similar ones are mastic and roofing felt.
Besides them, there are others. Therefore, it is better to contact specialists before starting work and get professional advice, taking into account the individual characteristics of the structure. If you use the wrong material or install it in violation of the technology, the result will be disappointing.
Do-it-yourself roof insulation
When carrying out work on the insulation of the roof, it is necessary to constantly ensure that the ventilation gap is not blocked in any case. When using a superdiffusion membrane, the insulation should be fixed close to it. Then the gap will remain intact. When installing the roofing film, two gaps are made: one under the film, the second above it. Insulation plates that are nearby are stacked in a checkerboard pattern. In order for them to fit snugly against the rafters, the thermal insulation material must be cut slightly wider than the distance between the rafters. ExceptIn addition, the rafters should also fit snugly against each other so that there are no gaps between them.
When insulating the roof from the inside with mineral wool, it is necessary to arrange a waterproofing layer, laying which, one should also not forget about the quality of the joints and installation. If there is a large step between the rafters, the insulation is fixed from the inside, from the housing side. This is done using self-tapping screws, which are twisted into wooden rafters, and a wire is pulled between them. If the rafters have a small section, then the insulation can be laid under the beams and between them.
There is a rule that experienced builders follow: if the layer of material chosen as thermal insulation has a thickness of 20 centimeters, then it is best to use two layers with a total thickness of 10 centimeters.
Preparation for roof insulation from the inside
When insulating a pitched roof, in addition to buying a heater, you do not have to bear additional costs. If you have to insulate a hipped (or more) roof, then during the installation of the insulation, you will have to carry out additional work in order to achieve high-quality insulation. Hence the different from the usual technique for the installation of insulation material.
Before you start the insulation of the roof, you must carefully check all the elements included in its composition. If traces of rot or structural damage are found, all damaged areas must be replaced.
Then the entire roof structure should be treated with a special solution that preventsrot and mold.
After that, heating elements and plumbing systems, wires are carefully checked for damage or breakage.
Pitched roof insulation
The best solution for insulating a pitched roof is the use of roll insulation. Slabs can also be used - they are laid between the rafters on a wooden crate. When performing such work, it is important to protect the insulation from below. The role of such protection is performed by the vapor barrier film laid at the beginning. A special sealing tape is laid on top of the heat-insulating material.
There must be a gap between the roofing and the insulation. Lay insulation between the rafters, in between. With proper roof insulation, the material will also perform a noise-protective function.
Common mistakes when laying thermal insulation materials
At first glance, it may seem that there is nothing complicated in insulating the roof from the inside. However, first-time crafters often make the same mistakes that ruin all their efforts.
The most common mistake when insulating a roof with wool is the wrong choice of material for insulation, as well as its dimensions. Particularly the width. The second common mistake is the use of wet insulation. This is fraught with the appearance in the future of rust on the metal parts of the roof, rot will appear on the rafters, and there will be a smell of mold in the attic space. In addition, if the humidity is high, it will inevitably penetrate inside the house.
Roof insulation materials
Materials for roof insulation are of the following types:
- mesh-reinforced films;
- film reinforced with fabric;
- perforated films;
- polyethylene films.
When insulating a pitched roof, if the space under the roof involves human habitation, the following must be considered:
- If the attic is too humid, then when insulating it is necessary to use films, not just reinforced, but on one side of which there is foil.
- Close attention should be paid to those places where external walls adjoin the ceiling. (Especially dense laying of insulation is required there.)
- If there are eaves, they should also be insulated so that air does not penetrate into the under-roof space.
- If a difficult area is insulated, it is sometimes easier to fix the film with a construction stapler. So fixing the material will be much easier. You can also use wooden slats instead of a stapler.
If you follow the recommendations of experienced professionals and do not violate the instructions for installation and operation of building materials, the process of insulating the roof of a house will bring the desired result, and in addition, it will help save significant financial resources on utilities.