One of the oldest building materials - ceramics - has firmly entered the life of modern man. There are many other materials for flooring and wall cladding, but in most cases, due to a wide range of performance characteristics, buyers opt for ceramic tiles.
The range of material applications is almost unlimited - from finishing a working corner in the kitchen to floors and walls in the lobby of luxury hotels or exhibition halls.
Basic properties of ceramic tiles
- Strength. In terms of hardness and strength, the material leaves reinforced concrete and cement far behind. The described characteristic may not justify itself if mistakes were made during the installation process.
- Rigidity. The tile does not deform or bend under record high tensile loads. WithBy increasing the thickness of the product, its stiffness properties increase.
- Thermal conductivity and heat capacity. Ceramic absorbs and conducts heat almost instantly. This is the reason for the popularity of choosing brick facing tiles for finishing a fireplace or stove.
- Fire resistance and fire resistance. This property is another argument in favor of decorating fireplaces and stoves with the described material. It does not burn and protects the facing surface from ignition. The product does not emit toxic gases when heated.
- Anti-static and electrical insulating properties. The tile does not conduct electricity, it will protect people and animals from being hit by a discharge of static electricity (as happens when walking on synthetic surfaces - carpet, linoleum).
- Color fastness. Ceramics are insensitive to the action of sunlight. It does not fade, does not lose brightness in comparison with paper wallpaper, plastic, fabric coatings.
- Hygiene. Backsplash tiles are the best solution for the kitchen. Microbes and bacteria do not accumulate on its surface. This explains the popularity of this finishing material in the arrangement of operating rooms and manipulation rooms.
- Chemical resistance. Products are immune to the action of chemically active components (with the exception of hydrofluoric acid).
- Decorative. The variety of color and structure offer opens up almost unlimited possibilities for interior design. Smooth glazed ceramic tiles add a cozy and elegant touch to the bathroom, neatness and aesthetics to the kitchen.
Recommendations for selection
When choosing a material, some nuances must be taken into account:
- Incorrectly selected lighting can distort the color of the finish. Light from yellow fixtures on blue tiles can give walls a greenish tint.
- Mistakes in the selection of colors can affect the mood of the residents. The predominance of light colors in small rooms visually increases their area.
- Don't underestimate the reflectivity. To get rid of this phenomenon, walls should be lined with tiles in matte shades.
- For rooms in which the material will often be contaminated, it is necessary to choose colors that will advantageously hide this drawback - dark and grainy tones.
Bathroom tiles are the most suitable option. The coating will reliably protect the walls from the harmful effects of moisture, temperature changes and aggressive environments.
The bathroom is perhaps the only place in the house where not only the walls, but also the floor should be finished with ceramics. Water, as you know, sharpens stone, and with wood, drywall, paint and putty, it straightens out even faster. Tile is clearly the winner here. In a room where a person washes away fatigue, stress and pollution, it should create an atmosphere of comfort and peace.
What are the requirements for finishing material? Due to frequent contact with water and possiblemechanical loads (in the form of shelves, hanging cabinets, etc.), it must have a low degree of water absorption, minimal porosity and a dense structure.
Glazed tile wall cladding is popular - a special coating gives the tile brightness, glossy sheen and water-repellent properties. The list of advantages of the described type of material can be supplemented by high density, lack of cracks, resistance to alkalis and acids.
Brick tiles: scope of application
The technology of manufacturing imitation bricks from ceramics has endowed it with optimal properties for use in interior decoration. Designers are ready to offer a lot of ideas for interior design, the simplest option is framing for door and window openings, various niches, mirrors rigidly fixed to the wall. Often the described material is used as a backsplash tile for the kitchen.
Save on expensive brick imitation and give the room an original elegance by facing one of its corners - the less symmetry there is in the decoration, the more complete, realistic and natural the picture will be.
Brick facing tiles for decorating a wall fragment will look no less impressive. This option is good for zoning, for example, a wall behind the TV.
If you combine several types of ceramics - finish one wall with an imitation of red brick, and the other, yellow or terracotta another, you get the impression that the pieces are connected during constructiontwo different buildings.
Kitchen tiles are a modern style attribute
It is impossible to imagine a kitchen in a modern apartment without luxurious cladding. The latest materials and the latest developments will help to elegantly and practically decorate the interior of the room. Before choosing a facing tile, you need to decide on the furniture and design direction. It is important to understand that kitchen tiles will be exposed to grease, moisture and chemicals.
Selection of tiles depending on the chosen style of kitchen
Adherent to modern style kitchen tiles on the wall are smooth, even and glossy. It is better to refuse complex intricate patterns, textures and frequent joints. The ideal solution would be the simplicity of the lines and the desire for uniformity.
"Business card" country - the texture of natural stone. Handmade painting, tiles with jagged edges or broken into pieces would be appropriate. The trend of recent years is artificially aged finishing material. Priority colors: light brown, coffee with milk, beige, gold.
The aim of the Mediterranean style is to transport everyone who crosses the threshold of the room to the sun-drenched kitchens of Italy, Spain or France. The priority is painting, mosaic, complex textures. For wall tiling, you should choose bright shades of natural stones: cob alt blue or yellow-green.
What to look for when buying?
In the process of purchasing wall tiles for the kitchen, it is necessary to evaluate the coefficientglazed finish. The higher the value of this indicator, the less likely it is that cracks or chips will appear on the finishing material, thereby it will retain a neat appearance for a long time. Matte tiles will help to avoid reflections and glare. The granular structure will hide small impurities.
Humidity is constantly changing in the kitchen, steam will penetrate deep into the wall through the tile, leading to its gradual destruction. To minimize this outcome, it is necessary to choose a ceramic finishing material with a water absorption coefficient of no more than 5%.
How to calculate the required number of tiles?
When the question of the design of the premises is closed, the stage of calculating the required amount of materials for its implementation begins. To help the masters, a notebook, pencil and tape measure. The latter will be used to measure the area for masonry.
Before carrying out measuring work, the walls must be cleaned of old finishing materials, otherwise the calculation error increases significantly. For example, after plastering the surface, the working area of \u200b\u200bthe wall will decrease, and after removing the old tile, on the contrary, it will increase.
To assess the scale of potholes and bulges, it is necessary to depict the area of the room in the projection, so it will be easier to calculate the amount of material required.
Before tiling a brick wall, it is important to determine the presence and position of friezes, borders, etc. The data must be reflected on paper. Experts recommend: calculatethe amount of tiles should be such that there are no pieces of ceramic in the corners.
The amount of finishing material for each wall is calculated separately. The use of chunks, if unavoidable, is also reflected in the entries.
Common cladding technologies
In modern construction practice, the following wall tiling technologies are used:
- Seam to seam.
- Herringbone stitch.
- Spread out.
The seam-to-seam method is most often used because of its simplicity. Facing tiles for walls are placed in a row. So that at the end of the work the picture is perfect, you should take care of leveling the walls in advance. The indisputable advantage of the technique is the minimum amount of cut tiles, the seams will be neat and even, both vertically and horizontally.
The implementation of the "herringbone" method is possible only when working with rectangular tiles. The essence of the technique is laying tiles in a cascade. When calculating the amount of material, you should take 5-7% more, in case of losses during transportation or installation.
The diagonal pattern is the most complex, but if a real master has a hand in the matter, you can achieve the effect of space distortion using tiles for interior wall cladding of different shades and textures.
It is important to correctly draw the diagonal along which the laying will be carried out, as well as to prepare the cutting tool. The material volume is calculated in two steps:
- It is necessary to calculate how many whole segments will be required with marked diagonals.
- Determine how much tile to cut.
The technology of wall cladding with tiles randomly involves shifting each subsequent row by half a segment. It works both horizontally and vertically. Skillfully varying tiles of different colors and textures, you can create a surface layer of any configuration.
Preparatory work. Tools
Before starting the cladding process, it is important to learn the correct order of work, as well as be prepared in advance for the difficulties that may arise during work.
Initially, you need to decide on the amount of work to be done. Perhaps, the cladding will be preceded by auxiliary measures that will increase the time and budget for the repair. In most cases, removal of old tiles or other decorative material, as well as leveling the walls.
Facing the exterior walls with ceramic tiles is not much different from interior work. They trim the facade of the building to give the building a unique look. For these purposes, porcelain stoneware is indispensable. Finishing the exterior of the house should be carried out when the air temperature outside the window exceeds 5 degrees Celsius. Otherwise, microdeformations cannot be avoided.
To carry out the lining you will need the following tools:
- low power tile cutter;
- notched trowel;
- straight spatula large;
- mounting cross-separators;
- liquid nails.
Wall cladding methods
Today, there are three wall tiling technologies:
- Cement mortar.
- Adhesive composition.
- Liquid nails.
To ensure that the finishing material is securely fixed and lasts longer, experts fill it with water for 7-9 hours. This time is enough for the liquid to fill all the pores of the tile.
Consider how to tile walls using cement mortar.
At the first stage, an accurate marking of the site is carried out. Reiki are stuffed vertically and horizontally - strictly according to the level.
An important feature of the solution is a high drying speed, therefore, in order to maintain its operational properties, it should be diluted in small portions for 2-3 rows of tiles.
At the next stage, beacon tiles are laid, on which the function of the facing level will be assigned. The installation of each of them is carried out taking into account the thickness of the solution and an allowable step of 60 centimeters. You need to move from top to bottom. The tiles must be at the same level vertically and horizontally. Attach the guide cord along one of the resulting horizontal lines.
Wall tiles can be installed from bottom to top or top to bottom.
Apply a small amount of mortar evenly on each tile. Use a straight spatula. Remove excess fixing substance with a toothed tool. With a little effort, press the material against the wall, press again in the central part.To make the seams neat and even, plastic crosses are installed between us.
The finished cement is applied to the wrong side of the tile. To prevent the solution from penetrating the outside, it is given the shape of a pyramid with truncated edges. It is important that the edge of the tile touches the guide cord.
Press on the tile with little effort. On the rail, which is superimposed on the finishing material from above, tap with a hammer.
You can eliminate waviness with the help of a beacon rail. It is recommended to carry out the described procedure after each fixed part, otherwise, due to the resulting unevenness of the wall, the tile will have to be torn off and laid again. The verticality of the seam is easily determined using a plumb line.
Special overlays are placed in the grooves between the tiles.
The solution dries completely in 24-33 hours. When the strength properties of the bonding component are confirmed, the linings are carefully removed, and the grooves are treated with grout.
Wall tiling with adhesive mortar
Before laying, you must select the adhesive that is suitable for a particular situation. For example, for facing tiles in the bathroom, you should select a composition for interior decoration of rooms with high humidity. On sale there are ready-made dry mixes or on a polyurethane basis. The latter should be used for perfectly flat surfaces.
Walls are cleaned, leveled, primed. Marking is carried out on the wall using fixing rails and a building level.
The solution is applied to the back sidetile, superimposed on the wall. The tile should be pressed down so that the mastic is evenly distributed and the air is forced out.
When the first horizontal layer of ceramic is laid out, a support rail must be placed on top of it. Use cord and plumb line. This will allow fine adjustments of the material vertically and horizontally.