Many mistakenly assume that hardware is just fasteners, the same as self-tapping screws, bolts, screws. In fact, this is a misconception. In addition to fasteners, they include industrial products that are actively used in everyday life and entire sectors of the national economy.
Hardware is a metal product that surrounds a person. Scissors, pliers, shovels - people deal with them every day. For in-depth familiarization, you should consider in more detail the description of hardware, purpose and application.
The main raw materials are ferrous metal alloys, in particular, varieties of steel. Workpieces are processed by various methods: casting, stamping, pressing, cutting.
For example, bolts are made from hot rolled steel. It is cut into blanks of a given length. On the working part, a layer of several millimeters is removed. The upper part of the product is heated to give a hexagonal shape. The resulting semi-finished products are placed in a furnace, where they are hardened at 816 degrees. During this period, there is a change in the molecularstructures for strength. Then the future bolt is clamped and inserted between the shafts that create the thread. In this case, the workpiece is poured with grease to prevent overheating.
In the production of scissors, sheet steel is used, which contains 0.5% carbon. Under a pressure of 70 tons, blanks are cut on the conveyor. Then they are hardened in a special furnace, heating up to 1500 degrees in 15 minutes. Blades are sharpened automatically by special equipment. Handles are made of plastic. The product passes control on sharpness of sharpening of edges. The final stage is packaging.
Hardware by type of application are divided into industrial and general purpose items. Many products are included in the household use group.
Multipurpose metal products
It should be noted that these types of hardware include:
- Accessories to make housework easier: cleaning, washing, drying clothes.
- Knives and cutlery: cutlery, forks, spoons, scoops and a number of others.
- Tools for woodworking: saws, axes, for planing, filing.
- Products for farming: ladders, pruners, rakes, shovels, soil rippers, scythes, sickles.
- Devices for heating and lighting: lanterns, fuel boilers.
Industrial group of hardware
Includes several subgroups. Unites these hardware that produce themonly in the factory. They have standardized parameters. These are telegraph hooks, wire, cables, mesh, split pins.
A huge subgroup of strictly standardized items. Fasteners are hardware used to connect parts, structural elements in construction, engineering, and other types of the national economy.
Names of main varieties:
- Bolt - a metal product with a thread on the bottom and a hexagon head on the key.
- Screw - a threaded rod along the entire length of the working area.
- A screw is a subspecies of a screw.
- Stud - a metal rod without a head with a thread over the entire working surface.
- The pin is a piece of metal without a thread.
- Splint - a rod with a semicircular section, bent in half. With an eye at the fold.
- Nut - a die with a through hole and a thread inside. Usually has six faces.
- A washer is a thin piece of metal. Fits under the nut.
- Rivet - a rod without a thread. Has a rivet "hat" at the top.
According to the purpose, fasteners are:
- Construction focus. They are united by high strength, resistance to all weather conditions, most of the products are large.
- Furniture. They are small, used to assemble furniture elements. The service life of the goods depends on the quality of fasteners. Sagging of cabinets near cabinet furniture, looseningbacks of sofas are due to weak fastening of structural details.
- Automotive. High-strength hardware products are used to connect the structural elements of the car. High quality is essential when assembling heavy duty vehicles.
- Hardware fasteners used on the railway. They are highly resistant to the adverse effects of weather conditions, vibration fluctuations.
During construction, repair fasteners for construction purposes are actively used. They are not worth saving. Before buying, you should study the reviews, ask sellers about the manufacturer, quality, use certified products. The durability of the construction or repair depends on the quality of the products.
Metal accessories for the home are also purchased for a long period of time. Secateurs, scissors, shovels made of quality steel will serve several generations of consumers of the same family.
Summarizing, it should be noted that hardware is all metal products around. More often they are made from ferrous alloys, sometimes from non-ferrous ones. For example, aluminum wire or copper basins.
During the production process, steel products are hardened to give strength and increased wear resistance. Many production operations are carried out without human intervention. Automation makes production cheaper. At the same time, standardized products are produced. This is a prerequisite for hardware intended foruse in the military, defense industry or in the field of medicine. For these industries, products undergo rigorous testing for compliance with GOSTs and other quality standards.
Metal products are used in everyday life and industry. You should not buy cheap products that are manufactured outside of strict factory conditions. It should be remembered that hardware are items of a long period of use.