Prefabricated structures: design, modern construction methods and safety requirements

Prefabricated structures: design, modern construction methods and safety requirements
Prefabricated structures: design, modern construction methods and safety requirements
Anonim

The current pace of development of the construction industry requires market participants to erect buildings in record time. Prefabricated buildings and structures help to meet the established time frame without sacrificing the quality of buildings.

Prefabricated structure

Reasons for the popularity of prefabricated buildings

The customer expects promptness from the contractor, while the quality of the construction must be at its best. Prefabricated structures combine the lightness of metal structures and the reliability of the foundation, resistance to weather conditions and increased loads. The installation of such structures takes little time, and their reliability is not inferior to capital structures.

Practical application of structures

Metal elements in building structures have been used since the 50s of the last century. This is the first time such construction has been successfully completed in Canada. Basically, prefabricated structures are used as hangars, cowsheds, greenhouses and other structures,related to the field of agriculture. Warehouses and shops, sports facilities and exhibition centers are popular.

In housing construction, such technologies have not taken root due to the high requirements for seismic resistance of residential buildings and the time spent on shrinkage of the foundation.

Saving time and financial investment

The main reason why more and more entrepreneurs are opting for the construction of prefabricated structures is that this process allows you to save on the financial side of the issue.

Lightweight buildings are durable - they can serve well for more than 70 years. This can be done provided that all necessary safety regulations are followed.

Lightweight building

Proper design is half the battle

It is at the design stage of prefabricated structures that the foundations of successful construction are laid. Taking into account all the norms, the construction of the building will take a little time, and the result of such work will please the customer for many years.

The development of design documents is preceded by surveys, the result of which will be an understanding of the composition and characteristics of the soils on which the building is planned to be built.

Designers will have to analyze and evaluate many factors, including the climatic features of the area, as well as the limits of groundwater. Only taking into account all the nuances is it possible to build a durable structure.

After all the design work has been completed, the customer receives estimates, drawings and diagramsinstallation. Given that the project documentation contains the most accurate information, obtaining permission to erect a building in the authorities will be facilitated.

Prefabricated hangar

Production of structural elements

On the basis of the project, the production of metal structures and other elements that are required for the construction of the building is ordered. Prefabricated structures are made from lightweight and durable materials that are manufactured in the factory.

Practice shows that most often the frame of prefabricated buildings is made of lightweight steel, the sheets of which are galvanized.

The construction of prefabricated buildings and structures is rapidly gaining momentum, which affects the quality of assembly structures - it becomes higher, which makes it possible to build buildings of a high level of complexity.

Laying the foundation

During the construction of the structures under consideration, preference is given to strip foundations. The foundation is poured to a depth not exceeding one and a half meters. This value can be adjusted depending on the type of soil and other features that must be taken into account in the design and construction of prefabricated buildings and structures.

Design and construction of prefabricated structures

Building the frame of the building

Metal elements and sandwich panels, as a rule, come from the manufacturer in a complete set, along with assembly instructions. All these elements are assembled into a single structure - this isresembles a puzzle, in which there are no extra elements.

Given that the foundation is shallow, time-consuming and expensive work, such as drilling, is not provided for in this case, and therefore, immediately after the erection of the frame, facade work and roof construction begin.

The facade is sheathed with insulation, the building is waterproofed. Lastly, the necessary communications are brought to the building.

Safety requirements for prefabricated structures

In the first place among the safety requirements applied to easily erected structures is their fire safety. It is necessary to take care of compliance with norms and rules already at the design stage. This means that the raw materials to be used in construction must be made from fire-resistant material.

Each element must be given an appropriate certificate, which will guarantee its quality and fire resistance. The certificate must specify the limits for the spread of fire for a particular material.

The document prescribing the standards for the compliance of structures with fire safety standards is called “On Fire Safety Requirements”. It entered into force in 2008 and is still in effect.

Taking into account that the load-bearing structures of prefabricated structures are made of steel, in terms of fire resistance, such structures belong to the third type. This means that insulation and other insulating materials must be highly fire resistant.

Light anddurable materials

In addition to fire safety, special attention should be paid to surveys and the construction process itself. The construction of the structure should involve experienced specialists who have undergone appropriate instruction. Building installation work must also be carried out in accordance with building codes and regulations.

Compliance with reasonable safety requirements, attention to detail and verification of certificates of conformity for materials used in construction guarantee the durability of the structure under construction and the absence of complaints from regulatory authorities.

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