Wood occupies a special place among building materials. Previously, not just individual buildings, but entire cities were erected from it. In the modern construction industry, wooden structures are widely used. SNiP ||-25-80 is the main document, a design guide, as well as methods for protecting the specified material and building elements made from it.
Wood is characterized by high manufacturability, low specific gravity and ease of processing. In the manufacture of building structures such as window frames, interior doors with trusses, truss systems, coniferous wood is mainly used. This species is the most common and fairly resistant to external influences. Valuable hardwood can be used for critical and loaded structures.
Features of the design of wood building elements
Structures must have the necessary mechanical strength and stability. Ensuring the required characteristics is the goal of design and calculation activities.Wooden structures deserve special attention during their implementation. SNiP defines the basic requirements for such calculations. The bearing capacity of the elements and the ultimate deformation must meet the established parameters.
Ensuring long-term operation of buildings, taking into account the impact of external factors, constant and variable loads - these are the main requirements of SNiP. Wooden roof structures and interfloor ceilings in low-rise buildings are most widely used. The main reason is the low price and ease of manufacture. In wide practice, mainly standard schemes and recommendations of specialists are used.
Development of protective measures for timber structures
Maximum realization of all the advantages of this building material is possible only if it is resistant to the external environment. High flammability, susceptibility to the destructive effects of moisture and biological pests - wooden structures have these disadvantages. SNiP provides a set of measures to prevent them and minimize harmful consequences.
Methods for protecting wood from fire, high humidity or pests have been developed and are being improved. Thus, the treatment of rafters, logs and beams with special chemical compounds - flame retardants can reduce the risk of fire. Antiseptics reliably repel pests and inhibit the development of mold and fungi.
Additional lumber requirements
Stability and strengthwooden building structures is achieved through the use of materials with appropriate parameters. The manual for SNiP wooden structures in addition to GOST 8486-66 and 9463-72 imposes some additional requirements. This concerns the width of the annual rings, the use of the central part of the trunk - the core and the moisture content of the array.
New materials and elements made from them find application in the construction industry. In recent years, profiled wooden structures have been increasingly used. SNiP defines the basic requirements for them and the rules for their use.