Before installing a fireplace in a particular room, you must answer yourself the question of what tasks you will set for this equipment. Many consumers are trying to find a universal solution in this device, but it is not capable of performing several functions at once. You must understand that a decorative product does not have maximum heat transfer. It is also important to remember that there is a big difference between a fireplace in an apartment and a three-story house.
Before you start installing the fireplace, you should familiarize yourself with its device. In any such equipment, there are main constituent elements, among which should be highlighted:
The portal is a decorative part framing and surrounding the firebox. The firebox itself is a niche where a fire is made. When installing a fireplace, it is important to remember that there is a chimney through which smoke will be removed. The portal is the most decorative element of the whole structure, while the rest of the parts play a rather functional role.
Installation of a fireplace involves the assembly of a huge number of small parts. The design will be quite massive, therefore, it will require a reliable foundation, which will undergo a significant load. According to the device, the foundation is almost no different from the one that fits under any structure.
If possible, it is necessary to consider whether it is possible to build foundations for the fireplace and the main building at the design stage of the house at the same time, because in the future it will not be necessary to dismantle the coatings. However, it is impossible to make bases in such a way that they form a single structure, because they will carry different loads. Shrinkage during operation will also be different.
A gap of 5 cm should be left between the bases, which is covered with sand. However, the installation of a fireplace is accompanied by the need to comply with other rules. If we compare the size of the fireplace table with the plane of the foundation for the fireplace itself, the parameters of the latter will be 5 cm larger. The foundation must be laid at least 50 cm. The final value will depend on the condition of the soil.
Sometimes the bookmark is carried out to a more impressive depth. If you have to work with sandy soil, you must remember some features. Under the influence of the foundation, such soil will be compacted, so it can sag in a short time. Clay soils are unreliable, they have characteristics determined by the current humidity. If it is quite high, then the soil will not be able to carryload.
Installation of a fireplace is accompanied by a foundation device, the materials for which are used:
- rubble stone;
Cement or lime-cement mortar act as binding elements for base fillers. When preparing the mixture, the ratio of sand and cement will be sufficient, which is as follows: 1 to 6.
Features of installing a fireplace: installing a chimney
Fireplaces, installation and installation of which can be carried out by home craftsmen, have chimneys. They should be assembled taking into account the rules and requirements, otherwise it will be impossible to talk about the safety of even the highest quality fireplace. The chimney must not be located in external walls. The pipe is closer to the ridge.
If the pipe section on the street is smaller, this option is the most optimal. Brick is the best material for a chimney. Umbrellas and reflectors should not be placed at the exit of this part. When installing a fireplace with your own hands, you must remember that it is important to ensure the flow of fresh air, otherwise the equipment will not work.
If we compare closed structures with open ones, then the former lose. By creating a thrust of the required intensity, it will be possible to ensure the removal of gases and air using a smoke structure, ensuring the removal of combustion products. The chimney must be resistant to soot, condensate, and also withstand the temperatureexhaust gases. It should be created in such a way that this assembly complies with building, fire and operational standards.
Chimney installation features
The fireplace installation instructions provide for compliance with the rules when installing a chimney. For each of the latter, certain processes can be considered to strengthen the smoke exhaust structure, its assembly and installation. If you decide to use a brick, then first you need to arrange a foundation, then you can start laying the walls.
Don't forget about mopping, capping and the need for a chimney. If the chimney is made of ceramic, then modular elements must be fastened. The design must provide for a revision and a connection tee.
It is important to take into account the thermal expansion during installation, which is characteristic of the operation process. Violating the tightness of the channel is unacceptable. When creating and designing a structure, it is necessary to calculate the order of installation of the chimney, its height, cross-section and the correspondence of the constituent elements.
Installation of a fireplace insert
Installation of a fireplace in the house must be accompanied by compliance with fire safety rules. The wall around the equipment should be finished with fire resistant materials such as ceramic tiles. The device will work effectively only on a flat surface.
The bottom of the furnace must have a protective coating of fire-resistant materials. The best solution among the lastconsidered bas alt wool. It is not recommended to install the fireplace insert on an unprotected floor surface. The side walls should not be less than 6 cm thick; as for the back, its thickness should be 10 cm.
Oven placement features
Stoves and fireplaces, installation and installation of which can be carried out by you yourself, are functional and decorative components of the room. As for the former, they can be located close to the wall and even in the corner. If the main function is expressed in cooking and creating a cozy atmosphere, then when the equipment is located near the wall, part of the thermal energy will be spent on warming it up, but this factor is not critical.
If it is necessary to install an electric furnace, fire safety requirements are somewhat softened. A fireproof coating must be laid on the floor in front of the firebox, for this you can use a metal sheet. The nearest wall must be 125 cm away from the heater from the oven door. A distance of 120 cm must be maintained from the ceiling to the top. The distance from the side walls to the flammable surfaces of the room must be 50 cm. This also applies to the distance to the wall from the side of the device. To protect the floor, lay out a brick base.
Fireplace cladding can be installed using different materials. Porcelain stoneware acts as one of them, however, they are also suitablefollowing solutions:
- unglazed tiles;
- glazed ceramic tiles;
- gypsum volumetric tiles;
- natural stone veneer;
- imitation of different types of stone.
For each type of tile, its own adhesive is selected, which is combined with the surface and facing material. The adhesive must be heat resistant to withstand temperature changes.
Fireplaces, the device and installation of which are described in the article, are lined after cleaning and priming the surface. In addition, the base is leveled with plaster. If the walls need to be perfectly aligned, then beacons are installed on them, and a reinforcing mesh is fixed on the surface. In this case, a plaster solution is thrown onto the surface, and the leveling is carried out by the rule.
If you do not plan to apply a thick layer, then the application should be carried out with a wide spatula and distribute the composition over the surface. The tile is laid only after the layers are completely dry and gain strength. The adhesive is applied with a notched trowel, which leaves grooves that provide high adhesion. Laying must begin from the bottom row, going up.
The first row must be brought to the ideal horizontal using the building level, because the accuracy of the entire masonry will depend on it. This applies to all products that are stacked in turn, and not in a chaotic mess. In order to ensure the same size of vertical and horizontal seams, each mastercomes up with his own decisions. Between the rows you can insert pieces of tiles, while you - you can prefer special crosses, however they are suitable for small joints within 5 mm.
Before choosing a fireplace design, you must think about safety. For example, a closed firebox outperforms an open firebox in this respect. Therefore, the surest solution in a house where there are children is a fireplace with a cast-iron firebox.
If we are talking about a closed structure, then you should know that it is a firewood combustion chamber, in which one of the walls is glazed. The door with a lifting mechanism is very convenient, which moves up under the lining and allows you to turn a closed firebox into an open one.