Central air conditioner: principle of operation and features

Central air conditioner: principle of operation and features
Central air conditioner: principle of operation and features

In production premises or large production and amenity areas, it is necessary to create a certain microclimate with maintaining the desired humidity and temperature. For these purposes, a conventional air conditioner is not suitable due to its low performance. In such cases, a special air conditioner called central is used.

General information about the central air conditioner

Devices related to the declared air conditioners are capable of servicing large volumes of premises. They are also called supply and exhaust units, which can set a given microclimate. To provide this function, they are connected to the wiring of stationary ventilation ducts. Central air conditioner available:

  • carry out humidification;
  • heat the room;
  • clean up;
  • reduce humidity levels by dehumidifying the air;
  • saturate the air with certain specified components.

Considering the design of the device, we can say that this is a complex device assembled from different modules.

air conditioner modules

Each such modulehas its own equipment, which is responsible for a specific function:

  • air mixing;
  • heat exchange processes;
  • different types of treatments;
  • air flow regulation.

The presence of certain modules is not a certain standard, but depends on the needs in solving specific problems. Each module can be divided into sections. For modern equipment, these can be sections: heating, cooling, cleaning, saturation with humidity, noise absorption, fan compartment and heat recovery.

operation of the central air conditioner

How the device works

Thanks to the heat recovery and recirculation systems operating in the central air conditioner, energy consumption associated with space heating during the cold season is significantly reduced.

When using exhaust air as a coolant, the supply air is heated. In the same way, the reverse process is achieved during cooling - this is called heat recovery. But with this approach, there is no partial mixing as with recycling.

The central air conditioning system is controlled by a microprocessor-based automation circuit when the operator acts on a special remote control. The latter can be installed in any convenient place. The features available for customization are:

  • set temperature;
  • selecting the clean ventilation option when the outside air temperature parameters remain unchanged;
  • air speed control;
  • timer options with the ability to program schedule modes;
  • display information about the state of the temperature outside, indoors, operating modes;
  • possibility of complete autonomy in work with automatic adjustment of system operation parameters depending on changes in environmental conditions.

During operation, the unit simultaneously supplies and extracts air to each serviced room through the ventilation ducts. A zone valve is responsible for regulating the flow in each particular room. The supply air does not immediately enter the room, but first passes through filtration, then a heat exchanger, where it is heated or cooled. Also, the air flow can undergo the operation of drying or humidifying.

air conditioner ducts

Features of air conditioners

A feature of the central air conditioner is that it belongs to non-autonomous systems. This puts it in a dependent position on related devices, such as heat sources, a refrigeration unit in the form of a condensing unit.

Equipment of this type is designed to serve huge premises, such as hangars, indoor sports grounds, theater halls, workshops of plants and factories, various enterprises. Depending on the required power, not one, but several air conditioners can be installed.

The central air conditioner is a flexible system due to the presence of individual modules that can be easily combined.

centralair conditioner KCKP

Central Frame Air Conditioner

Homemade frame type air conditioners can be used in tropical and temperate climate zones. There are installations of forced-air and exhaust and forced-air purposes. Structurally, they can be made with the air flow in the left and right direction.

Models KCKP, KCKZ, KCK, KCKM air conditioners require their installation in a horizontal position, KCKV - designed for vertical installation. Models KCKV, KCKZ, KCK, KCKM air conditioners are attached to the frame of the supporting purpose, the central air conditioner KCKP must be hung, making fixation for the floors of buildings.

ceiling mount air conditioner

The devices are equipped with sound insulation as well as insulation to prevent the penetration of heat from the functional units. This allows the systems to be installed directly in the production halls. The standard set of the KCC air conditioner includes the following block elements:

  • reception;
  • for mixing;
  • treatment;
  • cooling;
  • for air transportation.

Central frame-panel air conditioner KCKP is made on the basis of a rigid aluminum frame and sandwich panels with a thickness of 25 mm. Any air conditioner unit is convenient to maintain due to easy access to its functional part.

KCKP Air Conditioner Manual

After installing the central air conditioner, the instruction for its first start involves the following steps:

  1. Closing the inlet gate to avoid overloading and failure of the fan motor.
  2. Start the fan and adjust the air flow by slowly opening the air damper. There should be no extraneous noises and sounds, as well as increased vibration of the system. If this is observed, the cause must be found and eliminated.
  3. When the fan is operating normally, connect the remaining units one by one.
  4. Diagnose the device within an hour for the appearance of extraneous sounds, smell, vibrations.
  5. Turn off the air conditioner and visually inspect all functional units.
  6. Check the filters for integrity, the quality of condensate removal, the performance of the water seal. Fan belts must not be loose, bearings must not be overheated.
  7. Inspect the entire piping system and repair any leaks.
  8. Check the tightness of the system blocks and the entire unit.
air conditioner check


The central frame-panel air conditioner KCKP modification has the following advantages:

  • custom made;
  • complete with domestic automation elements;
  • the product has a monoblock and block design;
  • products comply with ISO 9001 quality standards;
  • has a high degree of reliability and warranty service.


A significant disadvantage of all central air conditioning systems is their high cost, andalso the need for a separate room for the installation of the air conditioner and all related systems. The difficulty of perfectly adjusting the comfort in each specific served room is also a significant disadvantage.


The installation of such complex equipment as central air conditioning requires the involvement of specialized firms, which, as a rule, are engaged in the manufacture of these systems. The specialists of the companies can design the necessary design of the unit themselves, based on the needs of the customer.

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