If there is a need to heat a low-rise residential building, then the use of special stove structures is traditionally chosen.
Need to use
Ceramic brick, the characteristics of which are not suitable for the construction of the furnace, is not able to withstand high temperatures. The most suitable material for such a design is oven brick, which has unique technical characteristics. Among them, resistance to high temperatures can be distinguished. Such products are used to create shells that isolate open fire and protect structures from destruction.
The characteristics of sand-lime brick are also not suitable. Heat-resistant brick has a special purpose, it is used for lining the internal surfaces of industrial and domestic furnaces. This building material is used to create stationary structures such as barbecues and barbecues.
If you will use stove bricks (see below for specifications), it is important to remember that it must meet certain requirements. Amongthey can be distinguished by heat resistance from 1000 degrees without loss of properties. Insignificant thermal conductivity, which provides protection for building structures, is also important. It is impossible not to single out the heat resistance of products, which allows the brick to withstand a large number of cooling and heating cycles. The products described are energy accumulators. In other words, the brick quickly heats up and gives off heat to the external environment.
Kiln brick, the characteristics of which will be presented in the article, consists of refractory clay, graphite, large fractions of quartz powder, and powder coke. Such products are made by semi-dry pressing, the technology involves several stages. The first is the preparation of raw materials, during which the clay is crushed and kneaded. After the introduction of the mixture, the mixture is brought to a homogeneous state. During this process, about 10% water is added to the composition to achieve the desired moisture level.
Brick, the characteristics of which will be excellent, in the form of finished mass is placed in the bunker, and from it goes to the dispenser. After the brick is molded, it is fed to the bottom punch of the mold in the form of a press. The upper part of the latter descends and exerts pressure on the product, which will be sufficient for sealing. After the process is completed, the block is pushed out of the mold onto the site.
The pressing process is repeated again, and the product is sent for firing, which happensat 1000 degrees.
When kiln bricks are made, the characteristics of which should be known to every craftsman, pre-drying is eliminated and production time is reduced. This method is cheaper than plastic molding.
Characteristics of fullness and density
Ceramic bricks, whose technical characteristics are not very suitable for creating a stove, are best left for building a house. The physical and chemical properties of products are determined by the method of manufacture and the composition of raw materials. For the construction of stoves, as well as fireplaces for industrial or domestic purposes, solid bricks are used. As for density, it acts as one of the most important parameters. Verification of these characteristics is carried out in accordance with the methodology established by GOST 24468-80. During the measurements, the total porosity and apparent density are determined. The most optimal ratio between these parameters can achieve maximum strength and resistance to negative conditions.
Kiln brick, whose characteristics are determined by manufacturing technology, is exposed to high temperatures and even open flames. The tensile strength of products depends on compliance with the recipe, brand and production technology. Chamotte brick has the highest tensile strength, the brand of this product is SHAK,the mentioned indicator is equivalent to 23 N / mm 2. Such products are widely used for laying technological and domestic stoves, as well as for existing fireplaces installed in houses. If you want to buy a kiln brick, the strength characteristic should be critical.
Temperature limit reviews
According to experts, fireplaces and household stoves are in contact with open fire, as for pipes and chimney channels, they heat up to impressive temperatures when they come into contact with combustion products. All materials used for the construction of structures must have a high temperature limit. Consumers most often choose bricks that have maximum heat resistance, their temperature limit is in the range from 1630 to 1730 degrees. For laying other components of fireplaces and stoves, material is used that is not subject to such stringent requirements. Experienced stove-makers advise using material for chimneys that can withstand temperatures of 700 degrees.
Reviews on thermal conductivity
Kiln brick, the technical characteristics of which are presented in the article, must have a certain level of thermal conductivity. If it is as low as possible, it is possible to protect adjacent building structures from exposure to high temperatures. If we are talking about fireclay bricks, then the mentioned parameter varies between 1.8 - 1.9W/(m°C). Magnesite brick exhibits a thermal conductivity of 2.6 to 2.8. Dinas brick has a thermal conductivity limit of 1.95.
Chromomagnesite products have the highest thermal conductivity, which varies from 1.75 to 2.85 W/(m°C). As users note and as the above figures confirm, it is fireclay bricks that have lower thermal conductivity. Therefore, it has become widespread in construction. Such products are able to reliably protect the structure from exposure to high temperatures.
Full-bodied oven brick, the characteristics of which are important to study before purchasing a product, must have a certain resistance to aggressive environments. The latter include products of combustion and fire. Alkalis and acids will not affect the surface of the brick, so there are no requirements for this indicator. If we take into account the composition, it is worth noting that refractory fireclay bricks should not be used in those structures where the surface can come into contact with an acidic environment. According to buyers, this can cause premature failure of the structure.
Water absorption reviews
Fire-resistant brick is made using clay, the structure is covered with pores during the firing process. Voids contribute to high water absorption of water from the external environment or in contact with it. Depending on the type of products, bricks are able to accumulate up to 30% of liquid from their volume. This indicator can be calledimpressive for a building material. Consumers emphasize that this property should be taken into account if there is a need to store or store bricks. You should avoid leaving products in outdoor areas for a long time, this is especially true if building materials can be affected by snow or rain. Under such conditions, the brick runs the risk of losing its strength and other characteristics.
The strength of the masonry will depend on the quality of the brick, how it was laid, and also on how well the mortar was prepared. It is important to comply with the technology, which implies the need for wetting products. If in the process of carrying out the work a common array is obtained according to the type of monolith, then the quality of the masonry will be reliable. Continuous vertical seams should be excluded, ensuring their dressing, only then you can count on strength. The walls of the structure must be gas-tight, so smoke will not enter the room.
You need to use a clay solution, after wetting each product. The composition should be applied by hand. The trowel is used when laying walls outside. You can spread the mortar over the surface of the brick without gaps, laying the products in place. The block after laying must be moved back and forth, excess composition will need to be disposed of. The same principle must be followed when laying the following products. After you take the brick out of the water, it should be laid on the mortar, slightly raising the back side. The product must not immediatelybe placed horizontally. This will allow you to pick up the solution with a bonder face and move it into place.
Nuances of the work
Characteristics of building bricks necessarily involve soaking products. The block can only be rinsed, however, the masonry must be carried out faster. A slightly wetted brick will absorb moisture faster, the mortar will dehydrate and thicken.
If you don't have enough skill, you can get thick seams with this approach. In this case, it is recommended to enlist the help of a second person who will spread the mortar on the surface of the brick.
Facing brick, whose characteristics differ from stove brick, is laid using the same technology. However, conventional cement mortar can be used. It is better to moisten the products with a washcloth or a rag, expose the part on which the next block is supposed to be exposed to moisture. On the bonded face, the mortar must be applied with a brick or trowel.
If you have to work with refractory material, then you need to rinse it a little with water. Seams can be made in a variety of ways. If, after completion, the masonry is supposed to be covered with plaster, then the seams must be hollowed out, while they are not filled with mortar to a depth of 10 millimeters. In the process of applying the plaster, the mortar will flow into the seams and adhere well to the surface.