What are peonies, description of flowers, best varieties, breeding and care recommendations

What are peonies, description of flowers, best varieties, breeding and care recommendations
What are peonies, description of flowers, best varieties, breeding and care recommendations
Anonim

Peonies are beautiful perennial flowers that are very popular with gardeners and landscapers. A perennial ornamental culture is good for decorating a flower garden. Beautiful flowers captivate with their unique aroma and beauty. In our article we want to talk about what peonies are and how they need to be bred, because among the readers there are many fans of a beautiful culture.

Beautiful flower

Peonies occupy one of the leading places among ornamental perennial crops. It is probably not an exaggeration to say that there are such flowers in almost every household plot. They are very popular among experienced and beginner gardeners. Beautiful flowers are not only the decoration of any personal plot, but are also used for cutting. Fragrant bouquets look great in vases.

What are peonies? The culture belongs to herbaceous perennials and deciduous shrubs (if we are talking about tree peonies).Plants belong to the only genus of the peony family. The culture got its Latin name in honor of the legendary doctor Peanu, who healed people and gods from wounds received in battles.

Fine-leaved peony photo and description

China is considered the birthplace of culture. Varietal plants in Europe first came in the seventeenth century. Subsequently, they began to be called Chinese. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, garden peonies were brought from China to Japan, where new varieties with a Chinese type of flowers were bred. In France in the nineteenth century, through the efforts of breeders, new varieties of culture were obtained, which to this day remain real masterpieces of world selection.

According to the International Registry, more than 4664 herbaceous varieties and more than 500 tree varieties are now registered.

Classification of varieties

Not everyone knows about the diversity of culture. Even experienced flower growers are not always familiar with how many types of peonies there are. The names of varieties and photos of flowers presented in our article will help you navigate the issue. It is worth noting that according to the structure of the flower, varieties are divided into:

The best varieties of peonies
  1. Non-double. Such plants have only one row of wide petals (“golden glow”, “nadia”).
  2. Semi-double (e.g. "Hankor Legion").
  3. Anemone (Longfellow variety).
  4. Japanese ("moon of nippon").
  5. Pink ("Robert Outen").
  6. Semi-spherical terry ("pearl scattering").
  7. Kansas.

Botanical description

What are peonies? It is a perennial semi-shrub. A shrub or herbaceous plant that has several stems, the height of which reaches a meter. The culture has a powerful large cone-shaped rhizome.

A few buds are located on the stems of the culture, the leaves are arranged alternately. Usually the foliage is dark green with brown, dark purple or gray stripes.

Peony flowers (photo and description are given in the article) reach 15-25 centimeters in diameter. Single inflorescences have a corolla and a calyx. Typically, flowers have five dark green sepals and five petals.

After flowering, a fruit is formed on the plant, which is a complex star-shaped multileaf, each of which opens along the seam and gives several large seeds (seeds can be oval or round).

History of the plant

What are peonies? These are the oldest plants. Even the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians laid beautiful gardens in which they tried to grow the most outlandish crops brought from other countries. The Greeks and Persians planted gardens for educational purposes. The first mention of peonies dates back to those times.

Peony is a beautiful flower. Since ancient times, it has adorned the canvases of artists and palace halls. No wonder he was considered the king of all colors. In terms of splendor and beauty, peonies even competed with roses. Culture was revered and loved not only in China, but also in Europe. Legends were even made about beautiful flowers, attributing miraculous properties to them. In Greece,for example, a description of beads made from pieces of peony has been preserved. Such jewelry was worn from infancy. It was believed that the beads scare away evil spirits and heal from ailments.

As early as 1500 years ago in China, flowers adorned the beautiful imperial gardens. Already in those days, skillful court gardeners bred new varieties of peonies. An interesting fact is that ordinary people were strictly forbidden to grow such a culture. It was believed that the flower is very expensive and symbolizes we alth and nobility. Therefore, ordinary people were not supposed to have it in the garden.

It is worth noting that the meaning of the flower has not changed to this day. Peony still remains a symbol of nobility and we alth. To give a flower means to wish a person well-being and goodness.

Peony photo and description

Japanese gardeners have managed to develop a large number of tree varieties. At the same time, the form of the flower, which is now called Japanese, was obtained.

Until now, many nations attach great importance to peony flowers. For example, in the East it is believed that they kindle passion. Young girls need to keep flowers in the bedroom to attract love. In ancient Rome, culture was considered a medicine. Therefore, treatises described ailments in which peony can be used as a remedy. Almost all famous healers of the ancient world used the plant to prepare healing potions. And in our time in pharmacies you can buy a tincture of peony roots, which has a sedative effect. It has been successfully used for sleep disorders.

Ancient Greeksconsidered the flower a symbol of longevity. In the ancient chronicles of the sixteenth century, there are references to the fact that peonies grew in the gardens of palaces and in monasteries. Presumably, they believe that Peter I brought culture to Russia. But peonies came to Siberia and the Far East from Japan.

In Europe, culture is most loved in France. Famous gardeners of that time actively worked on the creation of new varieties that are popular to this day.

At the end of the nineteenth century, American and British breeders also began to work on breeding new species. Thanks to their efforts, new colors of flowers appeared in the world, the decorative effect of plants was increased.

Varieties of peonies with photos and names

Currently, gardeners have a large selection of crop varieties. The best varieties of peonies include the following:

Peonies varieties description
  1. "Vitamana" - a plant with yellow-golden petals.
  2. "Piter brand" - peonies with snow-white flowers and an open core with numerous yellow stamens.
  3. Red Pearl is an herbaceous crop with bright red flowers.
  4. "Flock of Butterflies" - a variety with pale pink petals and bright yellow stamens.
  5. Black Pirate has very dark burgundy double buds.
  6. Pion thin-leaved. Photos and descriptions of this variety allow you to appreciate its beauty. It is one of the most popular species found in our gardens.
  7. "Pink Jade". The name itself suggests that the plant has pink flowers.
  8. Peonies"Maryin root" refers to an evasive species. This cultivar has dark purple flowers.
  9. "Sarah Bernard" - a herbaceous plant with dark pink buds.

Thin-leaved peonies

Every experienced gardener has heard of thin-leaved peonies. The description and photos of this unusual plant allow you to appreciate all its beauty. Very often this species is called narrow-leaved or crow. A perennial herbaceous plant differs from other varieties in decorative leaves and bright red flowers. This type of peonies is considered very rare and is listed in the Red Book. Unfortunately, culture is incredibly rare in the wild. But as a garden plant, the narrow-leaved form is becoming more and more popular.

Peony flower meaning

In the 70s and 80s, this species was very popular. But then it was replaced by new varieties. For a long time, thin-leaved peonies (the description is given in the article) grew on the sites of true connoisseurs. Adult plants of this species reach a height of 40-60 cm. Numerous flowers are formed on the bushes, which reach a diameter of 8-10 centimeters. The plant is very bright and beautiful. The flowering of all buds begins at the same time, so the bushes resemble huge bouquets. A wonderful culture pleases the owners for 7-10 days. But even after the flowers wither, the bushes continue to be decorative.

True connoisseurs believe that this is one of the best varieties of peonies. Culture prefers sunny sites, but can grow in places with slight shading.

Ito-peonies

Newthe generation of culture is the Itoh peonies. Varieties of hybrids appeared as a result of the irrepressible desire of breeders to get herbaceous forms with beautiful yellow flowers. In the process of breeding Ito hybrids, tree-like and milky-flowered species were used. The pioneer in the development of new forms was the Japanese Toichi Ito. A new hybrid was named after him. The breeder began painstaking work on creating a new plant back in 1948. Many years have passed since then, but his students continue his work, creating more and more new and perfect species.

As a result of the most difficult work, a separate branch of culture was created, which is significantly different from the rest of the family.

Peonies varieties with photos and names

Ito hybrids are perennial plants with dying ground shoots. Bushes reach a height of 50-90 centimeters. The leaves of the culture resemble the stems of tree peonies.

Lemon Dream, White Emperor, Barcella, Border Charm, Viking Full Moon are the most famous Ito hybrids. Varieties of peonies differ in color and size of buds.

Tree peonies

Tree peonies are very popular. Their main difference from other varieties is that their shoots do not die off. It is for this reason that plants must be preserved in the winter. Bushes of tree peonies reach a height of 1.5-2 meters.

Peony flower meaning

This type of culture can be conditionally divided into three groups:

  1. Peonies with double flowers. Such plants can have a variety of bud colors. Induring flowering, the bushes become very heavy, so they need supports.
  2. Hybrid yellow peonies - this variety is very popular in landscape design, because it has an unusual color. The rich shade of flowers with patterned leaves are unusually beautiful.
  3. Japanese varietal plants can have semi-double and double flowers in different shades.

From tree-like forms, the following varieties of peonies are most popular (description is given below):

  1. "White Crystal". Flowers fully justify their name, as they shine with crystal white in the sun.
  2. "White Jade" - an old variety with white multi-petal buds.
  3. "White Phoenix". The buds of this species are pink when blooming, but later turn white.
  4. "White Wanderer" - a special super-double variety that does not have a core. White peony flowers are very large.
  5. "Red Giant" - a beautiful plant with giant red-pink buds.
  6. "Red Lotus". This variety of culture has bright red flowers resembling a lotus in shape.

Reproduction of peonies

Peonies reproduce by divisions. But you need to buy them in trusted places. You will not find good deals in the markets. If you want to purchase a varietal crop, then you should visit specialized stores. How to choose a good root? It is necessary to opt for divisions with three to five eyes. The length of the roots should be 10-15 cm.

Some varieties of American hybrids and medicinal peoniespropagated by pieces of roots. Experts note that very good bushes can often be obtained from non-standard divisions. But planting too developed rhizomes in the ground is not recommended.

The eyes of quality delenki should be shiny and bright. The roots should show no signs of rot or sunburn. All rotted areas on the delenka are removed, leaving only he althy tissues.

Fine-leaved peony description

In the process of cleaning the roots from dirt and rot, they must be soaked for a day in a solution of humate. After delenki, you need to disinfect in a suspension of foundationazole for thirty minutes.

To prevent the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms from the soil into the roots, experts recommend using a clay mash with the addition of copper sulfate and wood ash. The mass is thoroughly mixed and dipped into it every division.

Preparing the landing site

It is very important to choose the right place for planting peonies. The site should be well lit and at the same time it should be well protected from drafts and winds. When choosing a place to plant, it is worth remembering that peonies are large flowers that grow in one place for many years. To plant one bush, you need to put a plot measuring 80 by 80 centimeters.

If the soil in the garden is acidic, lime and clay must be added to it. For further normal growth of the crop, regular application of wood ash will be required. Phosphogypsum must be added to saline soil.

Delenok planting

Forsuccessful cultivation of peonies must be performed correctly to perform planting. Each division is planted in a separate hole. At the same time, her eyes should be at a depth of no more than 3-5 centimeters. If we are talking about hybrid forms, then they are planted at a depth of 10-12 centimeters.

Beautiful peonies flowers

Delenki are covered with soil by ¾. From above, the soil is compacted by hand so that there are no air voids. The surface is mulched with a mixture of sand and ash, mixed in a ratio of 1:1. Delenki are well watered after planting will be needed (about one bucket of water). If the autumn turned out to be dry, then 2-3 waterings can be carried out before the arrival of cold weather. The number of irrigations directly depends on the condition of the soil.

Preparing for winter

Depending on which peony flowers you choose for planting, you will need to prepare the bushes for the winter. Some varieties are preferable to cover before the arrival of cold weather. Shelter must be made on dry soil. As a material, you can use spruce branches. If snow has fallen on the ground, then it is not worth covering the landing. Peony roots do not tolerate high humidity, so in the fall it is necessary to mulch the soil. Such a simple method will allow you to protect the planting from suffocation in the spring. After all, it is not recommended to loosen the soil before the first shoots appear, as they can be damaged.

Feeding

To get abundant and long flowering bushes need to be fed regularly. Plants that are more than two years old can be fertilized with ammonium nitrate. To do this, the granules are scattered over the melted snow. To speed upmelting process, you can scatter the ash.

Delenki planted in autumn can be fed after 10-15 days with a weak solution of ammonium nitrate. To do this, the granules (5-10 grams) are dissolved in a bucket of water (10 l).

Experienced flower growers believe that overfeeding peonies is very dangerous, as this can lead to poor flowering. A large amount of fertilizer makes the plant defenseless against infections.

In the process of caring for peonies, it is necessary to alternate foliar and root top dressing. For this, it is necessary to use humate, foundationazole and preparations with a high content of trace elements.

Flowers peonies pink

In addition, plants can be fed with mullein. Cow dung is poured with water and insisted for several days. After the settled solution, the plants are watered. During the period of bud formation, it is recommended to add superphosphate to the mullein.

At the end of the flowering period, you can add a solution of wood ash, which is infused for four days (300 g of ash is taken per 10 liters of water).

Features of argotechnics

Caring for peonies has its own characteristics. Annually, the root collar of the plant grows five to six mm upwards. Therefore, it is strongly exposed in the process of removing weeds. You can cope with the problem with the help of mulching.

In addition, plants need regular watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds. It is especially important to ensure watering after flowering, since it is during this period that the buds are laid for the next year. In August, the root system intensively grows andeyes develop. The leaves of the plant are removed in preparation for winter no earlier than October.

Cut flowers

Flower growers grow peonies for beautiful flowers, which are used to create beautiful bouquets. However, the wrong cut can harm the bushes. Before flowering, it is necessary to form a plant. After the buds have reached the size of a pea, they must be thinned out.

New varieties of peonies

Only the strongest ovaries are left, and the rest are removed. This will allow you to get beautiful flowers next year.

Getting young plants

After growing peonies in one place for ten years, their flowering noticeably deteriorates. Therefore, it becomes necessary to rejuvenate the bushes. To do this, the plants are dug up, making a hole around it. It is worth noting that it is not so easy to extract adult plants from the ground. Their root system is very powerful. Next, the bush is divided into separate divisions, each of which should have 3-5 eyes and the same amount of roots.

Dug out plants must be dried for several hours before dividing in order to avoid brittle roots in the future. Divide the tubers into parts must be carefully. After all, the quality of the planting material depends on it. After dividing the rhizomes, a lot of fragments and stems with buds remain. They should not be thrown away, it is better to plant the roots in a separate area. In a couple of years, they can make good plants. For the winter, plantings must be covered with a layer of peat.

Full-fledged delenki to accelerate the germination process is necessaryplace in a bag with wet sawdust or moss. Then they are kept in an incubator for a month. Periodically, the package must be untied and ventilated. In the future, the blanks are stored in the cellar. As soon as weather conditions permit, the delenki are planted in open ground.

Disease prevention

Proper care is the key to plant he alth. With proper agricultural technology, peonies practically do not get sick. It is very important not to overfeed the bushes with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Young plants are recommended to be treated with fungicides with trace elements.

Varieties of ito peonies

Annually, a mixture of wood ash and sand should be added to the root neck. In early spring, seedlings need to be pollinated with wood ash. The most detrimental disease for peonies is gray rot. At an early stage, it causes wilting of the stems, and at a later time it contributes to the death of the buds. If you notice the appearance of gray rot on the bushes, you need to cut the affected shoots under the root. The places of cuts are treated with ashes, and the bushes are abundantly watered with a solution of potassium permanganate. Removed parts of plants and flowers must be burned to destroy gray rot.

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