Recently, breeders have bred a huge number of grape varieties. Thanks to their efforts, not only people living in the southern regions can enjoy fresh and tasty berries grown in the garden. Today, there are many dessert varieties that feel great in cold climes. A fruit-bearing vine can be obtained quite simply, since this culture takes root quite easily. There are a lot of ways to root cuttings of grapes, but now we will talk about chibouks harvested in the fall after pruning the vines before sheltering for the winter.
How to prepare cuttings
It is best to harvest cuttings in the month of November: when pruning fruit-bearing vines, you need to choose only well-ripened ones. The thickness should be about the same as a regular pencil.
- You need to cut the vine into segments with 2-4 buds. If there are few cuttings, it is better to wrap them in slightly moistened newsprint and in a plastic bag. At the same time, do not forget to leavesmall holes to allow air to circulate. Some, before laying the cuttings (or as they are called vineyards, chubuks) for storage, soak them in water for a day, then dry and pack.
- It is desirable (but not necessary) to dip the ends of the cuttings in melted wax or cover with plasticine. This is done to reduce moisture evaporation during storage.
- You can store cuttings in the refrigerator near the freezer. However, it is recommended to arrange them so that they do not freeze. If there are a lot of chibouks, then you can leave them in the cellar, wrapping them in a film and sprinkling them with sand before that. It is necessary that the temperature in the cellar be low. You can also dig in a non-flooded place to a depth of 15-20 cm, covering it with a special material on top. A trench filled with earth or sand is great for this.
- Chubuks cut in autumn cannot be kept outdoors for more than a day. They begin to gradually wake up and evaporate moisture. For rooting grape cuttings, it is better to use those that were harvested in the fall, and not cut from an overwintered vine. The fact is that during the winter period the shoots of the plant dry out quite strongly, the moisture from them freezes out. You can also root them, but for this you must first soak them in water for at least three days. The second reason why it is better to take autumn cuttings is the likelihood of buds freezing in winter.
How to prepare cuttings for rooting
Before you start rooting grape cuttings in winter, they needsaturate with moisture. If there is a small supply of wood, at least 1.5 cm long, from below and above the shank to the kidneys, the slices are refreshed with secateurs (the tool must be sharp) and soaked for 2-3 days.
Any container (bucket, basin, bath, etc.) with water, preferably well, melted or filtered, is suitable for soaking. The cuttings must be completely immersed in the liquid. For a better effect of the growth of the root system, various natural stimulants (for example, Heteroauxin), flower honey, aloe juice, or store-bought preparations Zircon, Epin, Fumar can be added to the water. If soaking takes place in clean water, then it is better to change it periodically.
In order to understand how much you need to soak the cuttings, you should look at the amount of moisture lost. It is easy to determine it by the level of wrinkling of the surface of the chubuk. Do not keep cuttings in water for more than 2 days, as they will suffocate.
After soaking, cut again, and add longitudinal sections of the bark at the bottom of the cutting. There should be a gap of about 1 cm between the lower cut and the kidney. Usually, this is where the first callus is formed. The cut should be about 3 cm above the top kidney. Some recommend waxing it.
Let's consider further some of the most common ways of harvesting and rooting cuttings.
Rooting in water. Operation sequence
With this method of rooting, the cuttings should have 2-3 buds. If more, it is desirablecut such a vine into pieces. Consider sequentially how the rooting of grape cuttings in water is carried out.
- Prepared vines are best placed in a transparent container, as this will make it possible to track the growth of the roots. The second kidney should be above the edge of this container. Water should be poured 4 cm and topped up as it decreases.
- The bottom of the cutting can be lightly scratched to stimulate the formation of callus that occurs in areas of damaged plant bark. Today there is debate about whether it is necessary. Sometimes roots appear without it, while the presence of callus may not always mean the appearance of roots.
- In the water, if desired, you can add "Heteroauxin". When rooting grape cuttings, it is imperative to change the water, about once a week, without adding anything. At the bottom of the sprout, you can make small cuts, about 1 cm, in order to rub Kornevin there. It is recommended to place a container with chibouks on a battery or any heated surface in order to stimulate the formation and growth of roots. It is also desirable to provide coolness at the top of the cuttings, as this will slow down the development of greenery. As a rule, after two weeks, leaves with shoots appear, and after the same period of time, small roots appear. It is worth noting that a flower cluster may form on the shoot. It must be carefully removed from the plant by pinching off or cutting off with small scissors. The roots on the handle usually form at the border of water and air. Sometimes grow above a cut or from a bud in water, rarely directly abovewater.
Landing in the ground
You can refuse to root grape cuttings in water and plant them directly in the ground, always loose. This will require separate containers. If you want to use this method, you need to remember that it is recommended to make the lower cut oblique so that it is easier to stick the cutting into the ground. It is also necessary to monitor the level of soil moisture and prevent it from drying out. The disadvantage of this method is that not every cutting successfully takes root. In addition, if the plant has already had green shoots, but there are no roots yet, then the water will act as nourishing roots.
In peat tablets
This method involves rooting grape cuttings in peat tablets. This is done as follows:
- After the cuttings have been soaked and trimmed, they should be inserted into swollen peat tablets, which must be wrapped in film or a wet cloth.
- Then, the cuttings, along with the tablets, must be placed in a plastic bag (to preserve moisture) and put in a cabinet for 3 weeks. With this method, the upper sections of the cuttings must be waxed.
- Most often, after about 3 weeks, grape roots will peck through the tablets. To plant such chibouks, you need to carefully cut the mesh on the tablet with scissors.
In this method of rooting grape cuttings at home, we get small seedlings that are convenient for plantingwithout overgrown vines, which simplifies the transplant process.
To root this way, you will need an aquarium, a foam bridge and an aerator. After the soaking is done, the chibouks are placed on a foam bridge. They need to be 2-3 cm in the water under the foam.
In the water you need to put an aerator that will pump air. With this method, aeration will be a good stimulator of root growth. In the aquarium, it is easy to arrange the heating of the liquid to the desired temperature (about 25 degrees Celsius), which also activates the growth of roots. And since the air above the water is cool, this will determine the balanced development of the shoot and root. However, it is worth paying attention to the power of the aeration flow, which should not be too large, as it can overturn the foam bridge. Also, when rooting grape cuttings, you can do without an aquarium, and use another container. But the good thing about an aquarium is that it's easier to follow the development of the plant and the roots.
Effective rooting method
This rather old and very successful method of rooting grape cuttings at home came to us from Moldova. It differs from the previous ones in that it needs the whole vine, the length of which is at least 60 cm. It is twisted into a ring, tied with a hemp rope and then placed in a deep hole. It is necessary that 1-2 kidneys remain on the surface. After that, the plant must be watered, and a small mound of earth should be poured onto the end peeking out of the ground,so that the kidneys do not dry out. With this method of rooting grape cuttings, a rather strong seedling grows in the fall, which is ready to show the first fruits as early as next year. This is due to the fact that in a long vine there is a sufficiently large supply of useful nutrients, which are quite enough for the development of a powerful root system. So many roots are formed, and along the entire length of this vine, the apical buds begin to receive enhanced nutrition.
Planting in the ground without sprouting
If it is already too late to root chibouks (for example, in April), you can plant them in the ground in a permanent place immediately after germination. Rooting of grapes by cuttings in spring is carried out as follows:
- It is desirable to place a school for cuttings on a hill with a southern slope.
- There should be organic matter and sand in the ground, since such soil warms up much faster, and root germination will not lag behind the growth of warmed buds.
- You can also slightly slow down the growth of the shoots, for this, the tops of the cuttings should be sprinkled with loose soil.
- Cuttings must be planted vertically. Long, exceeding 30 cm, should be planted at an angle so that the upper kidney is located on top. In this case, the shoot will grow evenly, without leaning to the side.
Planting in a container
After the roots grow about 1-2 cm, the shank must be planted. If the roots outgrow, they can become tangled and will be injured during transplantation. Most often rootinggrape cuttings at home are produced in cut plastic bottles with drainage holes made. The containers are filled with light earth. Since they are transparent, you can track the progress of the growth of the root system of the seedling.
Under the roots of the chubuk you need to leave about 5 cm of soil. It needs to be watered and put a stalk, which is sprinkled with earth. Pi this needs to be watered so that the earth sticks well to the roots. Then the soil should be compacted. Planting depth - from 7 to 10 cm. If the distance between the eyes is small, the cutting should be planted so that its sprouted upper eye is located above the ground.
Vine seedlings need to be watered very sparingly. They usually do this once a week. Watered quite a bit, about 100 g of water per cutting. An abundant supply of moisture is used if the ground temperature is above 15 ° C. If the room in which the seedlings are located is cold, then you can water it once every 2 or 3 weeks.
Start of growth
Sometimes several shoots begin to develop from one kidney at once. How to be in this case? How many sprouts should be on the handle?
The young root system of the chubuk is not able to provide food for two or more full-fledged vines. You need to choose only one of them, the strongest, or which grows strictly vertically.
If the shoots have developed from the upper two buds, it is better to choose the upper one and remove the lower one, since it will be more convenient to plant the seedling in a permanent place.
Why is it happeningroot rot and how to prevent it
Be sure to monitor the temperature, because if the seedlings become too cold, then the moisture will evaporate less, which will cause root rot. In this case, it is recommended to water them after the soil dries out. If the roots begin to rot, then it is necessary to dig up a seedling, completely cut off the rotten part, then lightly powder it with crushed coal, and then plant it in new, not too wet soil and put it in heat.
In case the roots are completely rotten, you can try to save the plant. To do this, it is necessary to refresh the cut to a living tissue and put it back into the water for rooting.
Root problems are signaled by wilting tops and sometimes drying out leaves. However, do not forget that this may not be rotting of the root system. Often this happens due to too dense soil or overflow. The roots in such conditions begin to suffocate. If the ground is wet and there is no way to irrigate with Radifarm or Kornevin, you can try to solve the problem with Megafol by spraying the plant with it.
Terms of rooting grape cuttings
For our climate zone, early rooting of cuttings is more suitable than later, planting directly in open ground.
Early harvesting and rooting of grape cuttings (in January-February) justify themselves only if there is artificial lighting and a heated greenhouse for growing.
Late rooting (in April-May) is used if the plant will be planted immediately in open ground, without growing incontainers.