Construction of the roof is an important stage in the construction of any building. The durability of the house, the comfort of the people living in it depends on the correctness of its design and installation.
The choice of roof type depends on many factors. It is important to consider all the nuances. In this case, all the work can be done independently. How to correctly calculate and mount the roof with your own hands will be discussed in the article.
How to choose the type of roof?
Before embarking on the construction process, you need to make a competent calculation. Do-it-yourself roofing can be no worse in quality than the work of professionals. Modern technology makes it possible. However, it will be necessary to consider in detail all the nuances of the construction process.
First, the procedure for calculating and planning a future building is carried out. The roof has a certain weight. This is influenced by its dimensions and materials that are used to create it. The type of foundation depends on the weight of the roof. Developing a plan will also help calculate the optimal amount of building materials.
First you needchoose the type of roof, its angle of inclination. This indicator depends on the climatic features of the area. So, for areas where there is a large amount of precipitation, the slopes should be sloping. This will prevent the accumulation of snow and water on the roof. Otherwise, a large load will act on the foundation.
The strength of the wind in a given area also determines how the roof will look. Do-it-yourself roofs are created only after careful calculation. If strong winds blow in the area, the roof should not be too sharp. Otherwise, moving air masses will exert a load on the structure. In such regions, the roof should be flat.
Note that the roof cannot slope less than 5°. The best option for areas with high rainfall throughout the year are slopes with an angle of inclination of 45 °. The type of materials used in the construction process also affects the choice of the angle of the roof.
Types of roofs
There are several types of roofs. The choice is also made at the planning stage. Modern construction offers a large selection of such structures. The roof can be single-pitched or double-pitched, there are also structures with 4 slopes. Hip designs look original. There are also gable and multi-slope varieties. They can be made from different materials. Soft roofs are popular. It is quite simple to make such a design with your own hands. There are also roofs that are covered with slate, metal tiles, corrugated board, etc.
If the walls are of unequal height, a shed roof should be made. This type of structure is used for the construction of commercial facilities. Gable roofs are used in the construction of private houses. Two slopes can be different or the same length. When using such a scheme in the house, you can make an attic or attic floor.
Four-pitched roofs are the most common construction in private construction. They look like a pyramid, the height of which can be different.
Hip roofs look original. They can be used in the construction of the attic floor. The slopes look like trapeziums. Frontal zones are triangles.
Gable and multi-pitched structures are considered the most difficult. In this case, a very accurate calculation is required. Construction at the same time will require special skills from the master. The design includes various additions, unusual connections. It is better to entrust the creation of such a roof to professionals.
Choice of flooring
The choice of the type of coverage occurs at the planning stage. The configuration of the structure itself, the choice of its rafter system, as well as the foundation of the building, depend on the type of material. The heaviest is the roof, covered with ceramic slate. This is a relatively inexpensive material. Its application requires strengthening the foundation and rafters.
Most often, do-it-yourself roofing is created from metal tiles or profiled sheets. In this case, the weight of the structure will be relatively small. Presented for salea wide range of profiles and colors of similar materials. This allows you to create not only a strong, but also a beautiful design.
There is another type of roof. In this case, flexible material (euroroofing material, roofing material) is used for its flooring. This option is the easiest to install. Also, its cost remains acceptable to almost all buyers. However, it is the least durable material. Restoration of the roof in this case will need to be done earlier than when using solid flooring.
The slope of the ramps largely depends on the choice of material. For a slate structure, the minimum angle of inclination is 22°. If you plan to install a soft roof with your own hands, you need to consider the number of layers of flooring. If there are 3, you can choose an angle for slopes of 5 °. For a two-layer soft roof, the minimum slope is 15°.
For a profiled sheet, the angle of inclination of the roof should be at least 12°, and for a metal tile - 14°.
The roof of a house consists of certain structural elements. You can create such a design with your own hands only if the master understands its structure. Each element is built sequentially. First, a crate is created. It is made from a bar of different thicknesses. The choice depends on the design and materials of the roof. The heavier it is, the thicker the elements of the truss system should be.
A layer of vapor barrier is laid on top of the crate. It is necessary to prevent the accumulation of moisture insidedesigns. Condensation collects due to temperature fluctuations. A heater is mounted on top of the vapor barrier. They can be mineral wool. This is an environmentally friendly material that is not subject to combustion.
Waterproofing is laid out on the insulation. It will not allow precipitation to penetrate into the structure. Finishes the roofing. In some cases, there may be more layers. It depends on the type of construction, the climatic conditions of the area.
The rafter system, in turn, consists of a mauerlat, rafter legs, ridge timber, struts, and battens. It is installed on the walls of the house. They are pre-strengthened with metal reinforcement. It is mounted around the perimeter. Galvanized studs are installed in this reinforcing belt. With their help, the Mauerlat (the basis of the truss system) is fixed on the base.
Carrying out a thorough calculation of each of the listed systems is a mandatory step in the construction of the roof.
Calculating the area of a gable roof
Careful planning requires the process of erecting a roof with your own hands. Installation and calculation has a number of features in accordance with the type of roof chosen. First, the area of \u200b\u200bthe structure is determined. Based on the information received, it will be possible to purchase the required amount of materials.
However, it should be noted that the roof area will be less than the floor area. It consists of sheets that overlap each other. There are also special ways to connect panels. One ofpopular varieties is seam roofing. It is not difficult to create such a connection with your own hands. The calculation of the amount of materials depends on the characteristics indicated by the flooring manufacturer in the technical documentation.
To perform the correct calculation, you need to determine the exact dimensions that appear in the plan. First, you need to draw a roof on the sheet. A line is drawn parallel to its base. A line is lowered onto it from the top of the structure. One slope forms a right triangle on the sheet. The length of its base is denoted by the letter A. The height of this triangle is denoted by the letter B, and its hypotenuse is denoted by the letter C. The length of the slope is denoted by the letter D.
The calculation will be as follows:
It is important to take into account the length of the overhangs of the eaves. Without taking them into account, the calculation will be inaccurate.
Hip roof calculation
Do-it-yourself corrugated roofing can be built in the form of a hip structure. It will have two trapezoidal slopes. The ends will be made in the form of equilateral triangles. In accordance with the features of such figures, the area of \u200b\u200bthe roof is also found.
To find the area of slopes, you need to use the following formula:
Area \u003d (A + B)B / 2, where A is the length of the upper edge of the slope, B is the length of the lower edge of the slope, C is the height of the trapezoid.
The result obtained must be multiplied by 2, since the roof has only two trapezoidal slopes. The area of an equilateral triangle is found using the following formula:
Square\u003d (AB) / 2, where A is the base of the triangle, B is the height of the triangle.
The result is also multiplied by two, since there are also two ends at the roof. When calculating, you need to take into account the cornices.
Installation of Mauerlat
Do-it-yourself roof installation begins with the creation of a truss system. It will be laid in layers of heat, steam and waterproofing, as well as the finishing layer of the finish. Knowing the area of the roof, it is necessary to calculate its weight. To do this, you need to consider the data of manufacturers of all building materials. They indicate the weight of all rolled, sheet decking.
Installation begins with the arrangement of the reinforcing belt around the entire perimeter of the building. Galvanized studs should protrude from it to a height of about 3 cm. Mauerlat is the base of the roof. It is created from a bar with a cross section of 15 x 15 cm (for an average roof) or 20 x 20 cm (for an overall structure).
In the year a reinforced belt will be created, a waterproofing layer will be mounted on it. It could be ruberoid. It is laid in 2 layers. After that, you can proceed to the installation of the Mauerlat. It is put on studs, which must also be screwed with galvanized nuts. The evenness of the frame is checked using the building level.
When creating a roof with your own hands, you need to be careful. Skews are not allowed. Otherwise, soon all the work will have to be redone again.
Installation of rafters
Do-it-yourself roof installation involves the mandatory installation of a truss system. For it, a bar is used orboards (section 15 x 15 cm). The rafter system is of two types: hanging or layered.
So, for a hip structure, diagonal rafters are required. They are also called narodniks. Rafter legs in this case will be short. They will support the entire system from two sides. The rafters will rest on the Mauerlat. Experienced builders recommend doing roof construction together with an assistant.
The upper parts of the truss system will rest on the ridge. In some cases, the center of gravity is transferred to the opposite part of the rafters. To connect the bars, a skate is used here, which is two boards. They are angled.
To stiffen the structure, spacers, braces, stretch marks are used. The legs of the rafters protrude beyond the walls of the building. This allows you to protect the foundation from water, snow.
It is important to choose the right pitch between the rafters. It can be from 60 to 100 cm. This indicator is chosen according to the type of material. If it is heavy, you need to take a step more often. It is also worth considering that the greater the slope angle of the slopes, the wider the distance between the rafters can be.
After the rafter system is created, you need to make a crate. For this, bars with a section of 5 x 5 cm are used. First you need to install a vapor barrier layer. Its choice depends on the characteristics of the area, climate. You should carefully look at the manufacturer's instructions. The vapor barrier must be laid with the correct side on the truss system.
Next, you need to mount a layer of insulation. between himand the vapor barrier should have a gap of 5 cm. This will allow moisture not to accumulate inside the structure. Otherwise, the wood will rot, quickly break down.
Insulation is laid between the rafters. This layer will also serve as additional soundproofing. Next, a layer of waterproofing is mounted. When these layers are mounted, you can start stuffing the crate. It is stuffed across the rafters.
If you plan to build a soft roof with your own hands, you need to complete a continuous crate. In this case, moisture resistant plywood is ideal. For hard materials, the crate can be made of bars or boards. They may be at a distance from each other. This indicator depends on the properties of the finish coating. If it is slate, you can make the distance longer.
At the final stage of installing the roof with your own hands, you need to lay the material chosen at the planning stage. For example, the owners decided to create a finishing layer from a soft material. In this case, the continuous crate is covered with a layer of roofing material. On it, starting from the bottom, roofing material begins to be mounted. Fixation is done with nails.
Each subsequent row should be placed exactly, focusing on the previous pattern. Skews are not allowed. Valleys, skates and ebbs are closed last. The result is a canvas that does not penetrate moisture, wind, etc.
If the owners decide to finish the roof with slate, a crutch is stuffed at its base. The material will be based on it. Whenthe first sheet of slate will be laid on the surface of the crate with gaps, it is fixed with special nails. They have a wide hat.
The next sheet of slate is overlapped. It is also fixed with nails. The next row is also overlapped on the previous material. This creates an impenetrable coating. The metal tile is also overlapped. Its connection occurs with the help of folds.
Having considered how the calculation and installation of the roof with your own hands takes place, you can create a similar structure yourself. Construction requirements and regulations must be followed exactly.