Before you start any construction work, you need to draw up a plan according to which the specialists or owners of the house will act. For example, before arranging the roof of a private house, you should create a project, which is one of the most important tasks.
If you are not one of those people who are familiar with all the nodes of the roofing device, and do not know how to draw up a diagram or a drawing of the roof, then you should use special computer programs like Autocad, it will be enough to enter size data into it, select a specific roof type - and the program will select standard schemes. This will create a high-quality drawing by calculating the nodes of the roof. But if you do the sketching yourself, then you should agree on the style of the house and the roof, determine the color of the roof.
Features of calculations
It is important to make calculations that will take into account the expected load on the roof. The drawing of the system will imply the main nodes of the roof. This should includematerials, tools and fasteners. The design provides for the mandatory calculation of the roof area. This is required to correctly determine the consumption of material, thermal insulation and fasteners. If you build a shed roof, then calculating the area will be very simple. Its shape is a rectangle, and to determine the area, the width should be multiplied by the length. In addition, 0.5 m on each side should be added for the roof overhang.
What else you need to know about design
If we are talking about a gable roof, then the area should be calculated in the same way, taking into account the length of the rafters and the overhang of the roof on the eaves and gables. The roof attachment points of such a system are more complex, but it is not difficult to calculate the area. The design will need to be divided into separate figures and school knowledge of geometry will be used, which will allow you to calculate the area of \u200b\u200beach of them. In the end, the numbers add up. It is important to take into account the snow load in winter before starting the system design, as an insufficient roof slope can cause additional loads. If snow does not leave the roof surface, this will increase the mechanical load on the rafter system.
Roof nodes will also pass through the covering material, so it is important to think about which one will be easier for you to work with. As you know, when building a house, the roof is the most expensive element. And the choice of roofingmaterial is an important step, since an attempt to save on it can lead to an increase in costs during operation. The roof should protect the entire building and extend its lifespan. A fairly popular roofing is slate, the constituent elements of which are asbestos and cement fibers. This material is ready to serve for about 40 years, but among its additional positive characteristics are:
- low cost;
- resistance to low temperatures;
- resistance to mechanical stress;
- easy installation procedure;
- no overheating of the sheet in hot weather.
Roof nodes can be easily arranged by choosing slate, in addition, the roof will have excellent thermal insulation properties, it will absorb sound and exhibit fire resistance characteristics. But slate also has disadvantages, they are expressed in a decrease in waterproof qualities over time, the possibility of the emergence and development of moss and lichens, as well as the fragility of the sheet edge. If you want to equip a reliable inexpensive roof, then slate will be an excellent solution. The main competitor of the above material is steel roofing. This material is inexpensive and can be used to cover roofs with complex configurations.
In modern construction, 0.5 mm galvanized steel is most often used for roofing, which is coated with an anti-corrosion zinc layer during the manufacturing process. positivethe qualities are ease of installation, low cost, the ability to cover complex structures and low weight. However, there are also disadvantages, they are expressed in increased noise level and unattractive appearance.
Choosing roofing, you can pay attention to aluminum, which is used in the manufacture of metal and seam roofs. For the manufacture of aluminum tiles, material is used in rolls, which has the necessary coatings. The covering material is lightweight and can be used on almost any batten system. If you use the folding method and kleimers, then when installing the roof, you can not drill a single hole in the material.
The service life of aluminum roofs can reach 150 years, which is the main factor that makes consumers purchase these covering materials. Metal roofing has also become popular in recent years. In the manufacture of sheets, a coating is applied to the surface, which ensures durability and strength. The top layer composition protects the material from corrosion, and in the construction market you can find a wide range of metal tiles, which are presented in products of different colors and shapes.
Corrugated roofing is a corrugated metal sheet that combines the positive characteristics of metal roofing and steel covering. The sheets may be polymer-coated and are of low cost. If you choosethis type of roofing, you will face the same problems that owners of houses with a roof made of galvanized steel and metal tiles face. However, this type of material also has the advantages of a galvanized metal roof. Depending on the specific type of coating, the service life can vary from 10 to 50 years.
Installation of the truss system
The roof truss units should be as strong as possible, since the reliability of the future roof depends on this. You can strengthen the layered rafters with the help of studs, nails, as well as nail plates. When using studs, the rafters in the upper part must be joined end-to-end, and they will be held together by linings made of waterproof plywood or metal. The upper part of the rafters can be connected with nails, for this it is best to use special staples. This technology is inexpensive, reliable and quite simple. Nail plates are sometimes used, which are made of galvanized steel and stamped teeth. The height of the last elements should be equal to 8 mm, and the number of rows of nails will depend on the size of the constituent parts.
Installation of eaves strips
The roof cornice unit is necessary to protect the wooden lathing from the negative external effects of precipitation. Installation of cornice strips is quite simple, for this they are nailed to the crate with nails in a checkerboard pattern, the distance between them should be approximately 30 cm.which are also called wind, will protect the roof from rainfall under the metal tile. They are installed from above with a bend on the eaves, and the distance between them should be approximately 35 cm.
The adjunction of the roof to the wall ensures the ability of the roof to cope with the main task and reliably protect the home from wind and precipitation. The junction of a metal roof is quite simple to equip, it is one of the most suitable building materials for such installation work. When the roof is attached to the wall, there must be a gap between the vertical elements, which is necessary to ensure natural air circulation in the roof cavity. The device of this junction involves the use of sheet metal elements. The installation of the apron cannot be carried out without chasing a section of the wall structure. At a height of 20 cm, a gutter should be made, the depth of which will be 3 cm. The edges of the element are treated with sealant, and the upper part is installed in the strobe.
The lower part of the product must be pressed against the roof surface with fasteners, which are equipped with a rubber gasket. If you will use a double apron design, then a higher degree of sealing should be provided. At the same time, it is possible to refuse the gating of wall structures. The upper element of the apron is fixed in the base with dowels, then the bottom fragment should be installed under the base, which has a lock that ensures a secure connection.
Sealing the pipe on the roof will ensure the correct operation of the heater. When finishing the chimney, you can use the so-called collar made of rectangular metal sheets. Their width should be 40 cm. To finish the chimney on a tiled roof, you can use a lying seam connection. Sealing a pipe on a pitched roof with a slope of 30° or more requires the installation of a special bar that will protect the back of the pipe from rainwater.