This beautiful tropical flower, enigmatically called "fiery tongue" for its bright scarlet color and shape, has gained great popularity in recent years. Spectacular flowering can only be achieved with proper care of the anthurium at home and creating a favorable climate for it in the apartment.
Anthurium flower (lat. Anthurium) in the wild can be found in countries of the American continent with a tropical climate: in the southern and central regions. According to the classification, it belongs to the perennials of the aroid family, which has more than 500 species. Among them there are herbaceous plants growing among the rocks or right on the trees.
Anthurium when caring for at home (photo below) requires the creation of a favorable indoor climate close to natural.
All the various types of anthuriums are united by the same structure of flowers. The official name Anthurium is translated from Greek as anthos (flower) andoura (tail), which is given for the shape of small flowers collected in a narrow dense cob, surrounded by a bright "veil" - bract. It is this that is the bright decoration of anthurium, which, after flowering, turns into an ordinary green leaf.
The color of the bedspread varies from white, yellow to shades of red and even black. The shape of the leaves is petiolate, however, there are species that are distinguished by a variety of sizes and colors: solid, openwork or carved.
All aroid plants are poisonous. The flowers contain the substance oxalate, which, if ingested by the human body, can cause swelling of the larynx. Therefore, all manipulations during transplantation or care must be performed with gloves.
Interesting flower names
According to Feng Shui, Anthurium, located in the house, increases family we alth and career success, it is also considered a home esoteric, which feels the biofield of the owners and increases their susceptibility to positive emotions and happiness.
Anthurium has many names:
- romantic - "flamingo flower" - for the grace of inflorescences, shaped like graceful beautiful birds;
- "tailflower" - for the original shape of leaves and flowers;
- "flower of passion" - for maintaining love and harmony between spouses in the house;
- he received the popular name "male happiness" for the tradition of giving it to representatives of the strong half of humanity, which gives them courage, success in work and in their personal lives, and also increases their sexual capabilities.
Varieties of "flamingo flower"
All varieties of anthuriums are divided into 3 main varieties:
- beautifully blooming, decorated with bright exotic flowers;
- green-leaved and variegated, which are valued precisely for the beauty of the leaves.
Many types of anthuriums can only be grown in greenhouses, and keeping them indoors is difficult.
Among the variety of anthurium varieties for growing and caring for at home, only a few are suitable:
- Andre (Andreanum) - the most popular because of the long flowering period (almost all year round). On long peduncles are spectacular, amazingly beautiful flowers. Their shades are different: snow-white, lilac, scarlet, pink, burgundy. In recent years, breeders have also developed varieties with green and almost black bracts.
- Scherzera (Scherzerianum) - differs in the rounded shape of the bedspread, colors: orange, red shades and white, plants with a speckled bract are also bred.
- Crystal and magnificent - representatives of variegated species, undersized plants with velvety large dark green leaves, decorated with white veins. These 2 varieties differ in the cross-section of petioles: the first one is rounded in the shape of a heart with veins resembling patterns on crystal, the second one is tetrahedral up to 40 cm in size, the color varies from green to purple.
- Multisected anthurium has dark green leaves in the formfingers, liana-like plant.
Purchasing and planting a "male flower"
After buying an anthurium, you should wait 3 days for acclimatization, and then you need to transplant it, which some flower growers do not know about. Many are afraid to touch the purchased plant, strewn with bright flowers, so as not to interfere with the flowering process. However, for anthurium, this rule does not apply. In order for the plant to continue to bloom profusely after purchase, the anthurium must be transplanted correctly for home care.
The main attention should be paid to the choice of capacity and soil mixture, adhering to 3 basic rules:
- The size of the pot is selected based on: the root system and spare 3 cm in diameter. You need to know that anthurium grows better in narrow and small containers, which has a positive effect on flowering. Ideal for a pot: plastic or glass flowerpots, but not clay ones, in which the roots are very cool during the cold season, which can lead to the death of the flower.
- The soil is best suited for special, purchased at a flower shop for aroid plants or a mixture for orchids. Drainage must be placed below. It is possible to prepare the soil yourself from soddy soil, peat, marsh moss in proportions of 1: 2: 1, foam plastic or coarse sand is added to improve air flow.
- The best way to transplant is transshipment, however, you should inspect the root system and remove rotten or damaged areas.
In the future, young plants should be transplanted annually, each time slightly increasing the pot. For adult anthuriums, home care transplantation should be done every 3 years, best during the period of active growth (February-March).
In the first 2 weeks after planting, watering should be minimal, and spraying should be carried out regularly. The first fertilizer can only be applied after 2 months.
Creating climate conditions
When caring for an anthurium flower at home, its tropical origin should be taken into account, which is why creating favorable indoor conditions for a capricious plant can be accompanied by some difficulties. However, all of them are surmountable and quite affordable for experienced and even beginner growers.
Basic care rules:
- anthurium loves sunlight, but not direct, but diffused, it is best to put it on windows facing west or east; in the cold season, with a lack of lighting, the plant must be highlighted;
- the flower loves high humidity, so 80% is considered ideal for it: to achieve it, it is recommended to use air humidifiers, as well as regular wiping the leaves with a damp cloth (do not touch the inflorescences!), spraying from a spray bottle, installing a container near the pot with water;
- favorable temperature for anthurium: from 20 to 28 ° C, and in the autumn-winter period - 18 ° C, which can affect flowering; when lowered to 16 ° C, the plant may die;
- Anthurium cannot stand drafts,temperature fluctuations and proximity to hot batteries.
Water and spraying
Since this is a truly tropical plant, when caring for anthurium at home, rare and abundant watering is necessary: in summer - once every 4 days, in winter - once a week, for which water is defended in advance for 2 days. It can only be used warm. The ideal option is to use melt water.
Irrigation is carried out by immersion, i.e. a flower pot is placed in a container of water so that its edges are above the liquid level. After the soil is completely saturated with moisture, the pot is removed. Be sure to wait until the excess water drains, because. when stagnant, excessive moisture will provoke rotting of the roots.
When caring for anthurium in winter at home, when the temperature in the apartment drops to 18 ° C, the number of waterings is reduced, but a warm shower is added. For it, you can use a plastic bag in which a pot with a plant is placed and tied so that the soil remains dry during the procedure. The flower is sprayed from the shower using the “water mist” method, and then it is necessary to do a little watering of the soil, not forgetting to drain the excess liquid from the pan. When spraying a flowering plant in the summer, do not spray water on the flowers themselves, so as not to spoil them.
Regular flower fertilizer is carried out every 2 weeks in the spring and summer months, it is especially important to do this during the period of increased growth of flower andleaf shoots. It is best to use ready-made mineral complex mixtures intended for orchids or aroid plants for top dressing. It is recommended to use only half the dose indicated in the instructions, so as not to burn.
Propagation of anthurium by cuttings
The most common method is vegetative, which can be done by dividing the bush during transplantation, separating "children" or apical cuttings. Some flower growers use the method of growing a stem with one leaf. With optimal care at home, Anthurium breeding is carried out in the warmer months, preferably from May to July, which contributes to better plant survival.
Procedure for the vegetative method:
- during transplantation, shoots should be separated from an adult plant by cutting off the top of the stems or separating the lower parts (roots);
- seat them in special containers and cover with glass or polyethylene to create a greenhouse;
- rooting usually occurs in 2 weeks, while 2 leaves begin to form on the sprout, then each young plant is planted in a separate pot.
Some flower growers root the cuttings in water, but weak young roots often rot with this method.
In order to get the seeds of indoor Anthurium flowers when caring for at home, the plant must first be pollinated, for which, with the help of a brush, pollen is transferred from one flower to another. After fruit ripeningin the form of berries, the seeds are taken out and washed in a running stream of water.
Many experts also recommend soaking the resulting seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 2 hours, which helps protect them from mold.
Sowing is carried out in a shallow container on wet foam rubber, which is then covered with film or glass. After germination, the seeds are planted in the soil. The picking of small anthurium seedlings when caring for at home (see photo of the process below) is done three times, as they grow. Finished seedlings 7 cm long are settled in separate containers using special soil for aroid plants.
Problems in growing "tailflower"
When growing indoor anthurium, home care often causes unforeseen difficulties that are associated with non-compliance with the rules for its optimal growth and flowering.
Main problems, causes and treatment:
- Yellowing of the leaves is usually due to waterlogging the soil, watering with unsettled chlorinated water, over-fertilizing, lack of lighting or too tight a pot.
- The leaves turn black on the plant for the following reasons: the presence of drafts, lack of moisture in the air; incorrect temperature conditions (hot or cold); direct sunlight; there is excess potassium in the soil.
- Brown spots are due to waterlogging, damage or hypothermia to the roots, poor soil; watering with hard or cold water.
- If Anthurium dries when cared for at homeleaves or their tips, then this happens due to lack of light and moisture in the air, lack of water when watering, or when a weakened plant becomes ill with anthracosis.
- Light spots on the green parts of the plant signal its freezing, which means that the pot with anthurium should be moved to a warmer place;
- Withering of the foliage occurs when the root system rots from excessive watering, and it should be quickly transplanted, cutting off the affected roots and drying for 30 minutes. the rest.
To cure a diseased plant, it is necessary to optimize its care, observing the correct watering, temperature and humidity.
When an anthurium flower looks sick or has lost its beauty when leaving at home, then pests may be to blame, the fight against which must be started immediately after their identification.
The most common parasites:
- Aphids (green or black) - usually visible on the leaves of the plant themselves, because its size reaches 2 mm. It feeds on plant juices and secretes a liquid that prevents the leaves from consuming oxygen, they curl up and dry out. To destroy the pest, it is necessary to spray with an insecticide ("Akarin" and others) or tobacco dust.
- Thrips are small invisible flies that secrete their excrement onto the leaves, attracting fungi. When infected, the color of the leaves changes: yellow-white or brown spots appear. To combat thrips, sticky traps and spraying with the drug are used.Actellik daily for a week.
- The spider mite leaves thin threads and punctures on the plant, after which it begins to wither and dry. For treatment, the leaves must be wiped with a cloth dipped in a solution of water and laundry soap, then treated with acaricides.
- The scale insect is a parasite that sucks the juices from the green parts, which can be seen by the appearance of brown tubercles on the leaves and stem. Insects should be collected manually, then treated with Actellik, repeated after 10 days. To maintain the plant, spray with mineral oil.
How to achieve flowering?
When caring for anthurium at home, some lovers can not wait for it to bloom. There can be many reasons for this, among which the main one is non-compliance with all the rules for creating a favorable climate, humidity, light and heat in the apartment, as well as improper selection of soil, a pot or top dressing. The plant loses strength, gets sick and is unable to form flower stalks.
It is also important to consider that already faded anthurium buds should be removed immediately. They can be left only in the case when the plans are to collect seeds from the plant. One more piece of advice: to stimulate flowering, experienced gardeners advise to give the plant a “temperature shock” in early spring, i.e. pour water with a temperature of 40-50 ° C, which will perfectly “cheer him up”.
If you follow all the rules for caring for anthurium at home and create favorable conditions for it, the “flamingo flower” will delight for a long timeits owner with beautiful bright colors.