How to assemble a switchboard with your own hands: recommendations from experts

How to assemble a switchboard with your own hands: recommendations from experts
How to assemble a switchboard with your own hands: recommendations from experts
Anonim

Since the day electricity appeared, our life has become much easier, and now we can no longer imagine how we can do without it. It has penetrated into all spheres of human life: in industry, agriculture, in the automotive industry, it is also impossible without it. As well as all household consumers. And since such energy is carried into each house, then it is necessary to properly distribute it among all devices. And here the main question arises: "How to assemble an electrical panel?".

All work can be entrusted to a specialist who, for the appropriate remuneration, will do everything at a professional level. As a result, all electrical appliances and the wiring itself will be reliably protected from overvoltage or surges.

Electrical panel in a private house

But is this shield really necessary, and if so, is it possible to install it yourself without resorting to outside help? Yes, it is possible, you just need to have at least minimal knowledge regarding the installation process. In the framework of this article, we will try to understand this difficult matter.

What forneed electrical box

This device is an important element of the entire system, which ensures uninterrupted and safe operation of the electrical network. In addition, the electrical panel in the apartment performs a number of other equally important functions:

  • The main power supply is connected to it.
  • Its task is to redistribute electricity among consumer groups, including circuit management.
  • Protects wiring from excessive overcurrent.
  • Produces electricity metering.
  • If necessary, it is possible to turn off both the entire circuit and any individual section.
  • Perhaps the most important task is to ensure complete safety, that is, to protect people and animals from electric shock.

If, in fact, the electrical panel is a box or box, inside which the main elements are located, which allows it to perform its direct duties.

This compact box has many important functions. And therefore, when thinking about installing an electrical panel in a private house or apartment, one should show all seriousness, along with caution and vigilance.

Now you can proceed to the analysis of a number of rules that will allow you not to delve into science once again.

General rules

The following recommendations will relate to the choice of electrical panel. And here is something that needs to be clear. In no case should you buy such boxes in any market or in a dubious shop. It is better to give preference to trusted outlets.

Electrical panel in the apartment

You can also order online from trusted manufacturers. So, a set of simple recommendations:

  • Stock. It is better to choose shields with some margin in relation to modules. That is, already during installation, it may be necessary to install a slightly larger number of devices. Therefore, it is better to predict everything at once.
  • Saving is harmful. Thinking about installing an electrical panel in a garage, apartment, country house, you should not save. And in general, you should try to resort to this as little as possible, and in this case we are talking about your own safety. Cheap shields are made of poor quality plastic, which will prove to be the worst over time.
  • Quality, time-tested. Only well-known manufacturers can offer high quality products. In addition, manufacturers have already taken care of the implementation of competent, convenient and safe wiring.

When the shield has already been purchased, there are also certain rules regarding its installation. Installation must be carried out sequentially. And here the aesthetic component is not so important, since it is the functionality that will come first.

Installation System

Competent assembly of the switchboard also implies a systematic approach to business. To eliminate the accident, the specialist will need no more than 5 minutes. Is it necessary to confuse him so that he spends an hour trying to figure everything out? This is the essence of systematics - all wiring and all elements should be understandable on an intuitive level. Only in this case any electricianwill be able to restore the supply of electricity to an apartment, a private house or a garage in a short time.

Color coding of wiring is very important and will help you avoid confusion. As a rule, single-color wires indicate phase and zero, and multi-color wires indicate ground. And almost everywhere white is a phase, and zero is a blue tint. It is strongly discouraged to use a different color scheme, such as yellow-green colors.

In order not to confuse the electrician, during the assembly of the electrical panel, it is necessary to adhere to the general connection rule. Namely: the phase wire is connected from below, zero - from above, and a separate bus should be provided for grounding.

How to assemble an electrical panel

All connections must go from top to bottom. In other words, the input is at the very top, and below are the less loaded elements.

You might get the impression that these rules, which have been used for a long time, are already boring, and many owners simply ignore them during the self-installation of the shield. Only, as practice shows, it does not end with anything good. In particular, this causes a lot of problems for the emergency team, which first has to figure out what's what.

Varieties of electrical panels

We figured out the rules, now it remains to make the right choice of the electrical panel itself in the apartment. Today, the market is flooded with a wide variety of options. At the same time, you can see that they are of different types:

  • By installation method:
    • Mounted.
    • Embedded.
  • Depending on the material of manufacture:
    • Metal.
    • Plastic.

Hinged shields are more simple to install, since there is no need to make a special niche for them. They are simply attached to the surface of the wall or pole using various fasteners (anchors, dowels, screws, self-tapping screws), depending on the base material. Moreover, if the shield is planned to be put on the street, then only the hinged type should be chosen.

Built-in drawers are suitable for indoor installation only. And then only if the wiring is hidden. During installation, a niche is needed, where a metal or plastic box will be located. This should be taken into account when deciding how to assemble the electrical panel on your own.

Metal boxes are produced as a hinged type, and built-in. The body of such boxes has high strength indicators, which gives them certain advantages, especially when placed outside.

It is much easier to implement anti-vandal protection and restrict access to small children here - the door can be locked. There are also good outdoor options that have both a lockable door and a small viewing window for easy meter reading.

Among plastic products there are a great many models that the eyes can literally run up. Here are hinged structures, and built-in, and street boxes. In addition, you can pick up an electrical panel in a private house or apartment of the originaldesign that will be in harmony with the interior of the room.

As a rule, in appearance they are much superior to metal counterparts. However, there is one characteristic drawback - over time, the plastic turns yellow.

Filling the electrical panel

Now you should think about what exactly the electrical panel circuit will be, that is, what necessary elements it will be filled with. And here there are two options: using RCDs and automatic devices, or only with automatic devices and differential devices (that is, without RCDs).

How to assemble an electrical panel with your own hands

Thinking about how to assemble the electrical panel, you should decide what exactly it will include. The layout in both cases is almost identical, except that some explanation is needed. That is, the box device consists of the following elements:

  • grounding bar blocks;
  • zero bus pads;
  • RCD;
  • input switch;
  • electric meter;
  • automatic protection.

Now a little explanation on how to assemble a single-phase electrical panel. For the first version of the circuit (with RCD), 20 A automatic machines are installed on the lines to which powerful electrical appliances will be connected. For lines with sockets, 16 A is enough, and even less for lighting - 6-10 A.

For the second circuit (without RCDs), differential devices are installed on lines with high-power electrical appliances and sockets, and ordinary machines are suitable for lighting.

Do I need an RCD?

Although in some cases a connection diagram is providedelectrical panel without the use of an RCD, this device must still be present. And this is done in order to ensure electrical safety. It also helps to avoid a fire in the event of a current leakage to the body of electrical appliances or to the ground.

Many people are interested not only in whether such a device is necessary, but also in how to assemble an electrical panel with an RCD. There are a number of important points to note here:

  • Loaded and socket lines must be equipped with an RCD of 30 mA. At the same time, its rated current should not be less than that of the circuit breaker. It is even recommended that it be a little higher.
  • In rooms with a high level of humidity, a 10 mA RCD is installed.
  • One RCD can combine several lines (from 2 to 4) protected by automatic devices. In this case, its face value should be equal to or even slightly more than the sum of the machines.
  • The use of RCDs in conjunction with differential devices is not economically feasible. The latter combine the functions of automatic machines and RCDs.

After developing your electrical wiring diagram, it makes sense to turn to a professional electrician. This will immediately identify most of the "pitfalls" that every beginner can discover on their own.

Where should the shield be located

How to assemble an electrical panel with your own hands, and in particular, where exactly to place it? Previously, in past decades, it was customary to place the shield on the landing. Now, most residents are trying to put such devices insidepremises, as this allows you to restrict access to the equipment by unauthorized persons. Certain amenities are also present.

Electrical panel assembly

Very convenient location of the shield - near the front door in the corridor at the height of human eye level. In this case, it is very convenient to take readings from the electric meter, as well as to de-energize some lines when leaving the home. In addition, during installation, the length of the main supply cable is significantly reduced.

Mounting the shield

All work is simple and resembles the installation of a kitchen cabinet or shelf. Therefore, there is nothing difficult in understanding how to assemble an electrical panel in a private house or apartment yourself. As discussed above, there are two types of drawers: hinged and built-in. For the first type, it is enough to make holes in the wall with a puncher and fix the box with screws.

For the second type, installation is more difficult. And if it is also a concrete wall, then first you need to make sure that it is not load-bearing. Otherwise, installation cannot be carried out due to the fact that it is forbidden to cut reinforcement in such walls. Although there is one option, but it is associated with obtaining the appropriate permit. In addition, the opening will need to be strengthened, and a number of procedures will have to go through, which will not know how long they will last.

Nevertheless, there is a way out even in such a difficult situation. A false wall or ledge is created (as it is more convenient for anyone), into which the box is placed. Only in this case about 10 cm of free space can be eaten. However, this is not socritical, especially if you present everything as a design idea.

After the case is in place, you can start connecting the electrical panel. To do this, inside it you need to fix the DIN rails (35 mm) with self-tapping screws. On them, in turn, electrical appliances are placed.

Entering wiring into the shield

Usually, the main power cable should enter the shield from the top. In this case, the introductory machine should be located in the upper left corner, and consumers are connected at the bottom. The standard cable contains 5 wires that differ in color. Of these, 3 is the phase that is supplied to the main machine. The other two are zero and ground.

How to properly assemble an electrical panel

Power wires, before connecting to the terminals of the machine, must be freed from external insulation by a section of 1 cm. The neutral and ground wires are connected to the corresponding blocks. There should also be two of them, and first of all, the zero blue wire is fixed with a clamping screw, then grounding is connected to the second bus.

Internal shield wiring

To connect the electrical panel, wires PV-1 or PV-3 with a core cross section of 4-6 mm can be suitable 2. As for the length, 1-2 meters is enough. In this case, it is imperative to observe the accepted colors of the wires: for the phase - white, and for zero - blue. Simple rules make installation much easier:

  • Connect devices in order, for example, starting from the left side.
  • The ends of the wires should be stripped to a distanceno more than 1 cm.
  • The stripped ends, having brought them into the terminals of the machines, should be well fixed, while at the same time making sure that the insulation does not get there. At the same time, there should be no exposed areas.
  • Large clusters of wires are collected in groups and tightened with plastic ties.

As for the circuit breakers themselves, no matter how many there are, they are connected in a serial way using one wire. And for this there are several options when solving the problem of how to properly assemble the switchboard. One of them is the use of a comb, the tips of which are placed in the machines and fixed with screws.

Another option is 2-pole lugs NShVI, into which both ends of the core are inserted, then they are pressed in.

General wiring diagram

In the end, the whole scheme should look like this. After connecting the introductory machine, the phase goes to the power grid, which must also be connected to zero. After it, machines and RCDs are already connected. Three wires will already lead to consumers:

  1. Phase connected to RCD.
  2. Neutral wire.
  3. Grounding.

After that, it is worth checking, for which it is better to invite a professional electrician.

Garage electrical panel

Installing a switchboard in a garage is no different from installing it in an apartment or in a private house. However, some features are still present:

  • Only hinged drawer type is suitable for garage.
  • If necessaryusing a welding machine is indispensable without a meter with a current winding. In addition to it, you will need to install a machine for 50 A.
  • When installing sockets in the shield, you should take care of their grounding.
  • As an additional element, you can put a charger for a car battery in the electrical panel.
  • In order to ensure safety, you should install several toggle switches: SA 1-4 for high voltage and SA 5-7 for low current.
  • With a three-phase line, it is imperative to put a knife switch.

Now the question of how to correctly assemble the electrical panel should not arise, and as a result, reliable protection will be provided to all internal elements from mechanical damage and the impact of a number of external factors.

Electrical panel connection

In addition, the use of all electrical appliances will comply with safety regulations.

In conclusion

Summing up, I would like to say a few words about the further operation of the electrical panel. For your convenience, it is recommended to sign each module, and place the entire shield circuit on the inner surface of the door. This makes it easy to identify the faulty line.

Six months after installing the shield, you should check the tightness of all screws and, if necessary, tighten them. Now, after reading this material, every owner of a house, apartment or garage will know how to assemble an electrical panel on their own.

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