In the article we will look at how to build a Russian stove with our own hands. It is recommended that you seek the help of an experienced stove-maker, especially if you have never encountered such work. But if you do not have the opportunity to ask more experienced masters for advice, you can try to comprehend all the basics of this difficult matter. If you look closely, you can see that the design of the Russian stove is outrageously simple. But at the same time, during the construction of it, it is necessary to follow all the recommendations, which will be discussed later. In order for the work to be done perfectly, you need to focus on SNiP III-G.11-62 and SP 7.13130.2013. Focusing on them, you will understand how to build a Russian stove with your own hands.
What are the pros and cons of installing a Russian stove in the house?
The stove is a fairly massive structure that can be used for both heating and cooking. Often it containscouch. It is very comfortable to sleep on the latter when it is terribly cold outside. And if you decide to build a Russian stove with a stove bench, you will definitely not regret it. You can find designs with a fireplace or hob. Before proceeding with the construction of such a furnace, you need to pay attention to all the nuances. Carefully evaluate all the scope of work and characteristics. The advantages of the oven include:
- High degree of fire safety.
- Cooling down slowly.
- Construction cost is small.
- There is no contact with fire when cooking.
And if you decide to build a Russian stove with a stove bench, then you are also provided with a warm place to sleep in winter. You will be like Ilya Muromets (or Emelya). But there are also disadvantages, among which:
- Efficiency rarely exceeds 30%.
- Fuel is not very economical.
- The rooms are heated unevenly. Often the temperature difference between the bottom and top of one room can be 20 degrees.
- Fuel burns unevenly.
- If you cook a dish in the oven, then it is unlikely that you will be able to keep track of it.
Working principle and device
There are a huge number of modifications of the Russian stove. They have significant differences in both shape and size, device. Therefore, you need to decide in advance on how to build a Russian stove in the country or in the house. It often happened that in one small village in all the houses the stoves were different. They simply weren't the same. On thetoday you can make the following classification:
- By size - large, small and medium.
- In terms of functionality - classic, improved. The latter are designs with a hob, fireplace, lounger and other additions.
- The shape of the arch - barrel-shaped, domed, three-centered.
But what better Russian stove to build in the country? What does it actually consist of? The design of the furnace includes the following elements:
- The crucible serves as the basis. This is a firebox consisting of a hearth (below) and a vault (above). Firewood and utensils are usually stored on the floor.
- The mouth is an opening in the crucible.
- The hearth window is an opening in the wall opposite the mouth.
- The hearth is the space between all openings.
- The retrumpet is the channel into which the smoke enters first.
- A view is an element that allows you to limit the flow of cold air into the oven.
- Hailo is an element that is overlaid with a view.
- Cold stove (or undercoat) is a place to store various dishes.
- Underfurnace is the space that is located directly under the firebox. As a rule, firewood is stored here.
Now you know what parts it consists of and how to build a Russian stove in the house. But only in general terms, we will consider the nuances further.
The principle of operation of the structure is not very complicated. Firewood is laid as tightly as possible on the floor. Oxygen is required for combustion to take place.will be fed through the bottom of the mouth. Gradually, the firewood flares up more strongly, the temperature rises. Smoke first accumulates directly under the vault, after which it enters the highlo and further into the chimney.
How to choose material
This is perhaps one of the crucial moments. All materials used in the manufacture of the furnace must be fireproof. Here is a short list:
- Only clay bricks should be used to lay the stove and chimney.
- For the manufacture of the vault and hearth - refractory or refractory bricks.
- It is allowed to use plaster, natural stone, tiles as cladding.
- Clay bricks, cardboard and any asbestos-based boards, mineral wool are suitable as fire protection.
Before you build a Russian stove on the street, you need to choose the right material. After all, the main condition is that it should not be afraid of moisture. Please note that the mixture for laying the stove is not always the same. It depends on the type of brick used:
- If you use refractory brick, then you need to use refractory clay and sand.
- Refractory - chamotte powder and refractory clay.
- Clay brick - clay-sand mortar.
To make a chimney, you will need to use a solution of lime and cement. The use of sand and lime is allowed. How to build a Russian stove with a stove bench in the house, you know. It won't be difficult. Unless, of course, there is a desire and opportunity to do so.
Several nuances when choosingmaterial
Both independent production of solutions and the purchase of a ready-made mixture are allowed. The latter option, by the way, is more attractive for lazy people. No need to worry that you will make a solution with the wrong proportion. The range of mixtures today is very large, so there should not be any problems with the choice. The main thing is to follow the technology.
If you choose the right solution and materials, you will ensure full compliance with all fire safety standards. In addition, the whole structure will be strong and stable. When buying materials, pay attention to their quality. The brick should have the most accurate dimensions, the surface is perfectly flat. There should be no extraneous inclusions.
Clay - only plastic and red, without the slightest amount of impurities. Before proceeding with the manufacture of the solution, the clay must be soaked in water and rubbed through the mesh. Sand must be taken fine-grained, the particle size is not more than 1.5 mm.
What tools do you need?
In order not to stop during the construction process, prepare all the tools in advance:
- Building pencil.
- Ruler, tape measure.
- Trowel (trowel).
- Kyanka (rubber).
- Buckets, small troughs - for mixing the solution.
- Mixer or drill attachment.
Be sure to decide on the size of the Russian stove, build itIt will only work if the plan is right. This is exactly what is worth mentioning.
How to choose a building site?
Please note that the Russian stove must be included in the project at the preparation stage. Only in this way will you be able to build one that will serve you for decades. When designing, you need to pay attention to such points:
- Foundation. It is necessary to pour a separate foundation under the stove. The main condition is that it must withstand all the loads that the stove will create. As a rule, they make a reinforced concrete slab or install blocks. Moreover, it should not come into contact with the main foundation - it is necessary to make a small gap, which is covered with sand. The base should be below the floor level by about the thickness of two bricks. After the first row of masonry, waterproofing must be done.
- The chimney must pass freely through coatings and ceilings - this is another important condition. Ridge beams, rafters and other elements should be kept away from the chimney.
- The oven should be conveniently located. After all, it and the chimney significantly affect the ergonomics of the entire building. For this reason, it is extremely important to think carefully about all the details: the placement of doors and windows, furniture, etc.
- Be sure to take into account the requirements of fire safety. The stove should be as far away from all combustible structures as possible.
Of course, you can cheat a little and reduce the size. How to build a Russian mini-oven, no tellingwe will - the analogy is the same, only the sizes are smaller.
How to improve security?
In order to prevent the fire of walls and ceilings that are in close proximity to the furnace, it is important to perform the following manipulations:
- Nail a sheet of metal on the floor near the hearth window. Sheet size - 70x50 cm.
- You need to maintain the distance between the stove and the wall (or partition). It should be equal to the height of the oven itself. In other words, if its height is 1.3 m, then the distance to the nearest combustible wall should be the same. Be sure to protect walls and partitions with plaster, bricks, tiles.
- There should be more than 1.25 m between the hearth window and the wall.
- Reinforced concrete and metal beams that run near the chimney must be at least 13 cm from its inner surface.
- If the beams are made of wood, then the gap is the same, only from the outer surface.
Features of the work
Were not afraid of difficulties and decided to build a stove? Then you need to decide on the type of construction and acquire an ordinal masonry plan. Please note that it is not recommended to carry out work at temperatures below +5 degrees. In winter, do not lay the stove. So, let's start building the structure. The walkthrough looks like this:
- First, two rows of bricks must be laid on the foundation. Between them, a layer of waterproofing is required.
- Wet the clay brick and lay the first row at the level of the finished floor. Useonly whole blocks, be sure to provide dressing at the corners with the next row. For this, three-quarter bricks are used. Three such blocks must be laid in each of the corners. The joints must be less than 5 mm thick, the mortar must be distributed over the entire surface of the brick. Constantly control the levelness of the masonry - otherwise you will not be able to make a quality oven.
- The second row needs to be laid out with solid bricks. Be sure to leave a small gap for baking. In the event that you do not plan to finish, then immediately embroider all the seams until the mortar has hardened. Bricks must be cleaned of mortar residue with a damp cloth. After the second row, horizontality should be assessed using a plumb line.
- The third and fourth rows need to be tied in the corners. For laying the fourth, you need to use solid bricks. The vault of the furnace will be based on the extreme briquettes located at the opening. They need to be cut down.
- After the fifth row you need to use the formwork. With its help, the vault of the furnace is made. From one heel to the other, the seams are tied up, the bricks are pressed against each other as tightly as possible. The eighth row is the last for the vault.
- The walls must be laid out in one brick. The dressing is done up to the 10th row, which provides a platform for the undercoat. Under the arch, the space in the oven must be covered with sand or glass. In this case, the oven will be able to give off more heat.
- The 11th row is laid out asprevious. This is the undercoat cover.
- The 12th row is under. It is made using refractory bricks, the solution is not used. All gaps must be covered with sand. On the left, it is necessary to provide an opening for ash and coal.
- Now let's start laying the crucible. It is completely made of refractory bricks. Seams no more than 3 mm. First you need to put the bricks on the edge along the inner contour. As for the walls, they need to be made in ¾ bricks, dressing is required. To increase the strength, you need to chop off the briquettes located in the front two corners at an angle of 45 degrees. Install formwork between them.
- The 16th row is the vault of the crucible. The entire space between the walls and the vault must be covered with sand. You need to lay out the arch from the edges, gradually moving towards the middle. Use twine to check the clutch.
- The hearth window has the shape of an arch. It is laid out after the vault.
- On the 20th row, the walls of the stove are being erected, while the space above the hearth is reduced.
- The 25th row is done in much the same way as the 10th. The stitches must be tied. The space above the hearth needs to be reduced to form an overtube.
- 22nd row - the overtube needs to be made even smaller. Then lay the samovar channel there.
- 23rd row - at this stage, you need to provide a place for soot and a window for cleaning.
- 24th row - overlap the overtube. Provide an opening for installing a view. Opposite it, you need to put a door. The view will open and close through it.
- 29th row - the channel of the samovar and the overtube are connected.
- 32nd row - with the help of a solid brick, the overtube is blocked. Leave one hole and close it with a latch. After installing it, you can start laying the chimney.
All timber formwork can be removed a week after the masonry mortar has gained strength. It is not recommended to remove it before. By the way, according to the same principle, the laying of a stove, a fireplace in the country is made. It is also possible to build a Russian stove using this technology, but the main thing is to follow the instructions.
What to do with the chimney?
Traditionally, Russian stoves are made with straight chimneys. At the same time, the combustion product goes directly to the street, meets almost no obstacles on its way. The optimal section of the chimney is 260x260 mm. But the height must be determined. To do this, you need to know the distance to the skate:
- If the distance is less than 1.5 m, then the chimney must be at least 0.5 m above the ridge.
- If the gap is 1.5-3m, then the pipe must be above the level of the ridge.
- If the distance is more than 3 m, then you need to draw at an angle of 10 degrees to the horizon down. And the chimney must be taller than her.
This data will help you build a Russian stove. The classic Russian stove has a reliable chimney. It is extremely important that it is stable. And be sure to consider these requirements:
- The density of the walls of the pipe and chimney should not allow the penetration of smoke intorooms. For this reason, it is necessary to make seams of the highest quality - they should not have voids, the thickness is less than 1 cm.
- The entire surface of the chimney must be grouted and whitewashed.
- The upper part, which is above the roof, needs to be plastered. This will protect it from the effects of precipitation.
- If the chimney is above a combustible roof, a spark arrester must be installed. It is made of metal mesh.
- Where the chimney is in contact with the ceiling, it is necessary to expand it - this is cutting. It also needs to be done correctly. If there is no protection against fire, then the cutting should be 0.5 m. If the structure has protection, then 38 cm. Cutting and overlapping should be independent.
Several oven finishes
The stove is a very large and heavy structure, which in any case will catch the eye. Therefore, it needs to be decorated. The main thing is that all surfaces are smooth and easy to clean. What finishes can be used:
- Plastering. The stove will get a neat appearance. In addition, with its help you will be able to eliminate all the minor defects that were made during the masonry. The plaster solution must be selected based on the quality required. Also, the composition of the solution depends on the level of humidity in the room. As a rule, a composition of sand and clay is used, sometimes alabaster, lime, cement are added. Maximum thickness is 10mm.
- Wall mopping and grouting is another good design option. At the same time, it is necessaryclean the walls of the stove from the protruding solution. Then the seams are filled and an attractive appearance is given to them. The main thing is to clean all the bricks in time so that they look beautiful.
- Natural stone looks no less attractive on the walls. Before proceeding with the lining, you need to lay out the stones on the floor - this will allow you to select them as accurately as possible in color and size. And after that, you can transfer all the stones to the walls. In order to complete the masonry, you need to use heat-resistant mastics.
- The most difficult option is with the help of tiles. One feature of this design is that it must be done in parallel with the laying of the furnace. The fact is that you first need to lay the tiles, then the bricks. After all, decorative elements with masonry are connected with a wire. And between each other with pins and brackets. Tiles are laid on a clay solution embedded in the ramps (these are the protrusions that are on the back side). As with stones, these elements need to be laid out on the floor in order to match them to size. Seams between adjacent elements - no more than 1.5 mm. They must be rubbed with plaster.
If you stopped at mopping or plastering, then after that it is recommended to paint or whitewash the oven. This will give it a more attractive appearance. The paint to be used must be casein or water based. As for metal elements, they need to be painted with heat-resistant varnish or paint. Following a simple instruction, you will learn how to carry out all the work yourself andyou can build a turnkey Russian stove for a bathhouse or a house.