Wells are a multifunctional structure. There are different types of them depending on the purpose, the material of manufacture. What are they? What is the technology of laying brick wells, read the article.
Types of wells
These structures are different, depending on many factors: purpose, depth of groundwater, soil composition and much more.
There are the following types of wells:
- Key - the most economical and simple. They are descending and ascending, depending on the presence of keys.
- Mine wells. To create them, it is necessary to dig a shaft 10-20 meters deep. The shape of such wells is different: round, rectangular, square.
- Pipe wells. They are made in a round shape, resembling a pipe. They are durable and hygienic facilities.
Masonry of wells is made of various materials. It can be brick, stone, concrete, reinforced concrete, wood.
These structures, regardless of type, have the same design - an elongated pit,the depth of which is 5-15 meters. The walls of such a well are reinforced, the head is neatly decorated. The advantages of a mine-type structure are that there is constant access to drinking water, which is not only stored here, but also replenished in a natural way. Such a well is extremely rarely drained completely.
Different types of shaft wells differ little from each other in their design. The difference between a stone and a brick well, for example, is small. The main difference is in the laying of bricks, where a certain scheme is applied. In order for the walls of the well to be reliable, the width of the masonry should be one to one and a half bricks. The round shape of the shaft is achieved through the use of a stabilizing profile.
If a brick or stone shaft is not reinforced with a frame that forms the skeleton of the entire well structure, it will begin to crumble very soon. For the manufacture of the support frame, a metal profile, reinforcement or waterproof wood species are used.
Laying a brick well begins with the preparation of frames. Their diameter should be equal to the diameter of the future well. The main one is the bottom frame. For its manufacture, metal, reinforced concrete or bog oak is used, since it must be the most durable. The frame is 10 cm thick. The width is equal to the thickness of the masonry. The size of the outer diameter is 5-6 centimeters larger than the outer diameter of the intermediate frames.
The outer edge of the frame along the entire perimeter from below hassteel knife. Both the upper and the intermediate frame are wooden. They are fastened together with nails. These frames are 8 centimeters thick and the width is the same or slightly less than the thickness of the masonry.
Along the perimeter of the frames, it is necessary to drill holes under each other, between which there will be the same distance. They are needed in order to insert anchors into them. The bottom frame has six anchors that are tightly secured with a nut and washer. After checking the level, the finished frame is lowered horizontally into the pit, and an intermediate frame is put on it with the help of nuts and washers. To make the structure stronger, it is necessary to strengthen it from above with logs.
Masonry of brick wells
This process is performed in one - one and a half bricks. In this case, the rows can only be bonded or alternate with spoon ones. Necessarily, regardless of the type of masonry, the first two rows are bonded. To maintain the correct round shape, experts recommend using templates that are made in the form of rings with two halves fastened with wedges.
Laying wells with your own hands is not difficult if everything is done correctly. First, a cement mortar 1-1.5 centimeters thick is applied to the main frame and leveled. Bricks of the first row are placed on it, then the second and so on. If the masonry of the wells is round, there will be gaps between the bricks on the outside. They need to be filled with broken bricks mixed with mortar.
During masonry, do notforget about the anchor holes. They are made in bricks. Gaps must be sealed with cement mortar. In order to obtain a solid brickwork, a thin wire should be laid in two layers along the entire length of each fourth row. When the distance between the intermediate frame and the top row becomes 5-6 centimeters, the masonry must be suspended, the anchors fixed on the frame, and the free space filled with mortar. But beforehand, gravel or crushed stone is added to it in a ratio of 1: 3. The solution must be compacted. For this, a wooden board is suitable, the width of which matches the distance between the frame and the bricks.
When water enters the well through the walls, holes for windows equal to 25x50 centimeters are left in them. They will be equipped with water filters. Reinforcement is applied to the brickwork of the upper row and poured with a cement mortar 20-25 centimeters thick.
After the laying of brick wells with your own hands is finished, they begin to plaster their internal and external walls. To facilitate this operation, you need to stock up on beacons, which are smooth, even slats. For this work, six pieces are enough. They are installed at the same distance from each other in those places where the anchors are attached.
The lighthouse is separated from the lighthouse by a wooden semicircle, which is called a malka. Its radius is half the diameter of the inside of the well. Malka moves along the beacons from top to bottom and vice versa, thereby leveling the solution that was previously applied to the wall.
It is impossible to immediately plaster the walls over their entire height, this is done in stripes. Each time, the beacons need to be removed, and the gaps should be sealed with mortar. In order not to clog the bottom with lumps of falling mortar, it is covered with boards.
Plaster the inner and outer surface of the walls of the well in two stages. Slurry is first sprayed to fill all the gaps in the brickwork, and then thicker.
After the first strip of masonry has been plastered, you need to continue sampling the soil and laying the second strip. So you should alternate work until the well is completely dug to the desired depth, which is fixed with concrete slabs placed under the knives of the main frame. The plates should extend beyond the boundaries of the well by about half a meter. After all work is completed, the bottom of the well must be thoroughly cleaned and covered with crushed stone, gravel or sand.
Laying wells of this type is carried out using clay bricks that do not allow water to pass through. In the absence of such, red will do. Laying is carried out in half a brick. Sewer wells are round, rectangular or square. To create them, you will need a lot of bricks, cement, sand, bitumen, greasy clay, crushed stone, as well as a floor slab and a ventilation pipe.
But first you need to choose a place where brick wells will be laid. Instructions with requirements for the safety of installation and operationsewer wells must be observed. The arrangement of such structures is carried out at a distance of 30 meters from the source of drinking water.
If the well is intended for the accumulation of waste, it is placed in a summer cottage so that a sewage pumping machine can drive up to it.
How to calculate the capacity of a sewer well?
It's easy to do. It is necessary to multiply the amount of water consumed per day in the country and the number of days during which sewage accumulates, for the processing of which microorganisms require three days. This must be taken into account when building a treatment plant made of bricks. It should be of a size such that there is enough space for the accumulation of waste for several days.
Bricklaying the sewer well
After determining the location of the well, acquiring the right material, construction begins. The technological process of laying brick wells begins with pouring the foundation. The solution is prepared from two parts of sand, one each - gravel and cement. The height of the foundation is 20 centimeters. After pouring, it needs to be given time to harden. Usually one week is enough for this. The foundation needs to be watered every day.
Then laying wells, plastering the bottom and walls, covering with bitumen in two layers. A ceiling made of a reinforced concrete slab or a tarred wooden shield, a hatch and a ventilation pipe are installed.
Masonry manhole made of bricks
Constructions of this type are used in plumbingsewer facilities. The manhole is recommended to be located at a distance of at least 3-12 meters from the dwelling. Its owner determines its size individually. The main requirement is the availability of conditions for work related to the maintenance of the pipeline.
Wells can have different shapes. The walls of a round well have a thickness equal to the length of one brick, which is laid with pokes. Rectangular brick laying is carried out according to a two-row system.
For laying bricks in dry soil, a mortar of cement and sand is used in a ratio of 1:4, and in wet soil - 1:3. The seams inside the well are also rubbed with mortar.
If groundwater occurs at the depth of a dug well, its outer surface is plastered. The thickness of the layer reaches two centimeters, and the height is half a meter above the groundwater level. When laying the walls of the well, brackets made of cast iron or steel are embedded in its seams. The distance between them is 35 centimeters. Staples are arranged vertically in a checkerboard pattern in two rows. They replace steps when descending and ascending the mine.
Special requirements are imposed on the material from which the well is being built. Brick should not have chips, cracks and be hollow. The solution is taken with a standard formulation. It consists of Portland cement M400 and clean sand with a grain size of no more than two millimeters. The mortar is stronger if it contains less sand. It is easy to find out by the ratio of ingredients. The optimal solution isgrade M50: one part of cement and four of sand.