Country life has become more and more popular lately. This is due to the benefits of fresh air, and urban residents no longer associate modern cottages and country houses with a place where there are no comfortable conditions that are typical for city apartments.
Central sewage disposal and purification systems are not provided in all suburban villages, but you can equip your house with sewerage and water supply, as well as other engineering networks on your own. But first you need to understand the types of sewage.
Which sewer system to choose
In a private home, you can use one of several sewer systems. Among other solutions - dry closet. It is suitable only for the cottage, which is used periodically, for a short rest. This design can solve the problem of toilet drains, but washing onkitchen and shower cannot be served by such a device. In addition, the dry closet can be a source of unpleasant odors.
Among the advantages, it is worth highlighting the compactness of the installation, unpretentiousness in maintenance and mobility. Considering the types of sewage, you should pay attention to the cesspool. This option was the most popular before, but today in summer cottages you can increasingly find washing machines, showers and other equipment that produces a huge amount of wastewater. If we consider a cesspool, then we should pay attention to its advantages in the form of cheap construction and simplicity of the device.
But there are plenty of flaws here. They are the risk of contamination of soil and groundwater. If you use a cesspool, then unpleasant odors in the area cannot be avoided. The installation of such a system in the country can be carried out if you do not use the territory for living and do not operate a large number of plumbing fixtures.
Another type of sewage system is a septic tank. It allows you to collect and process wastewater. Inside the chambers, sewage is settled and processed by bacteria that feed on organic matter. Septic tanks are autonomous sewers. The device can be carried out by installing wells, which are poured with concrete, laid out with bricks or assembled from reinforced concrete rings. To install a septic tank, you can choose an industrial design. This option has a high costbut differs in convenience and profitability. Installation work takes several days, but the construction of a homemade septic tank will take several months.
This type of sewage, which is assembled from improvised means in the form of car tires, is not able to provide reliable environmental protection. This design is suitable only for those cottages where the number of drains is small. You can use a similar sewer for a free-standing bath that will not be equipped with a toilet.
What you need to know about the cleaning station
You may also prefer a deep biological treatment plant. This sewage system is characterized by autonomy and high performance. The system cleans wastewater with high efficiency. But there are also disadvantages, consisting in volatility, because the station provides for the connection of power supply. The design itself can be expensive.
When considering the types of sewerage for a home, you should pay attention to the geological features on the site. If the groundwater is high and the soil is heavy enough, with a predominance of clay, it will not be possible to install a septic tank. In this case, you can make a choice between a storage type septic tank and a biological treatment plant. The first one will periodically need to be cleaned using a cesspool technique.
Selection of pipes for sewerage
If you plan to carry out the work yourself, then you need to figure out which pipes are commonly used todaywhen arranging a sewerage system in a private house. Building codes allow the use of the following pipe base materials:
- cast iron;
- asbestos cement;
- reinforced concrete.
The last option is used for the construction of main pipelines. Practice shows that plastic pipes perform best. This is due to the fact that polymers have many advantages, among them should be highlighted:
- no corrosion;
- ability to undergo resistance to aggressive environments;
- smoothness of the inner surface.
If we talk about the ability to withstand an aggressive environment, then this is very important for sewers, because drains can corrode the walls. The inner surface of the pipes must be smooth, this is the only way you can reduce the risk of blockages. We must not forget about durability.
About plastic pipes
Modern plastic pipes are manufactured in a wide range. This material is offered in a great variety. For example, when considering the types of PVC pipes for sewerage, you should consider that polyvinyl chloride has some features. For example, the connection does not require the use of a special tool. Pairing is carried out in a bell or with glue. The last technique is called cold welding.
These pipes are quite rigid, so fittings in the form of tees and bends should be used to turn. Pipes are good to use for open andconcealed installation. The appearance of the products is quite attractive, so when laying outside, you will not bring dissonance into the interior.
Considering the types of sewer pipes, you should definitely consider photos of such products. They are provided in the article. If we evaluate PVC in more detail, we can also note that this material is the cheapest polymer.
Should I choose polypropylene
Polypropylene can be single or multilayer. The latest products are thick-walled pipes made of polypropylene. On top, in this case, there is a polymer, inside there is aluminum foil. The layer is less layered plastic. The connection is made by fittings or by welding. In the latter case, you will need a soldering iron and nozzles of different diameters.
Should I choose polyethylene
One of the most common types of sewer pipes are polyethylene products. They can be operated at a fairly low temperature limit. The manufacturer offers for sale polyethylene manufactured using different technologies. You can find LDPE and HDPE products.
The material is highly elastic, so the pipes are sold in convenient coils. For connection, welding or fittings are used. Cross-linked polyethylene pipes, which are distinguished by high thermal stability and strength, should be singled out as a special category.
About plumbing and its types
Systemsewerage in most cases is continuously connected with water supply, which can be central or autonomous. If the village has a main network, then to supply communications, you will only need to contact the owner of the central water supply, who will carry out all the necessary work. As for autonomous water supply, it can be provided through a well or well.
About the wells
The first option is the most affordable and cheapest. The depth of the well can be determined by the level of the water. Usually this parameter reaches 10 m. It is quite simple to equip a well, as well as maintain it. However, such a system has some drawbacks. For example, water may contain bacteria and impurities. In addition, the amount of liquid obtained from the well is limited and is usually about 200 liters per hour. If you plan to use the well in winter, then to eliminate the risk of freezing of the pumping system, you should build an insulated house above the well.
Which well to choose
The article presents the most common types of water supply and sewerage. If you need to bring water to the house, then you can also use a well. But this method of extracting water is quite expensive, because it requires drilling the soil. You can build a sand well, which has a relatively shallow depth of 50 m. Therefore, you should decide on the line of occurrence of the aquifer. With the help of such a well, you can get about 1.5 cubic meters of water per hour. This volume will be enough for water supply of a smallcountry house.
Quite often, suburban real estate owners choose an artesian well. Although this option is the best, it is more expensive than the others. Water intake is carried out from the limestone layer. The depth can reach several hundred meters. Every hour from which source will you receive about 10 cubic meters of water.
Storm sewer and its main types
Every private house has a problem of rain and melt water drainage. If you also faced such a task, then you can figure out what types of storm sewers exist. Such a system can be open, it is the simplest in terms of device. Rainwater will be drained through open gutters or through dedicated outlet pipes.
You can also set up a closed system, which is more complex. Such sewerage requires design, and a professional should do the laying of pipes. In addition to gutters and pipes, such a system will have storm water inlets and underground pipes. Living in a private house, you should definitely consider the types of storm sewers. To divert water from the foundation, you can use a mixed type of sewer. This option is something intermediate between the two above. Such a system is installed in large areas or when you need to save on sewerage.
There are a lot of modern types of sewerage systems. This should include the central highway and autonomousinstallations, the arrangement of the latter of which you can do yourself. Sewerage is also considered the system that removes rain and melt water from the foundation of the house. Without it, the materials in the base and walls will quickly become unusable, and the foundation will have to be strengthened or completely changed. Before starting work, you should definitely consider the main varieties of such structures in order to decide which one is right for you.