History has not preserved the name of the person who first appreciated the useful properties and taste of grapes, but it is known for certain that people began to grow it before our era. Today, early and ultra-early grape varieties are popular among gardeners. What explains this? We will try to answer this question in this article.
How to choose a grape variety?
When choosing early or ultra-early grape varieties, it is necessary to pay attention to their characteristics, growing characteristics in different regions and climatic conditions, soil preferences, bush size, ripening time, resistance to frost, pests and diseases. Then you need to decide on species and taste preferences.
Grape varieties are divided into groups by ripening time on:
- up to 105 days - ultra early;
- from 105 to 120 - early;
- from 120 to 135 - medium;
- from 135 days - late.
Advantages of early ripening varieties
Today, breeders have bred a huge number of early ripening grape varieties, which are appreciated by both professionals and amateur gardeners. Their indisputable advantages include resistance to fungal diseases. This is explained by the fact that at the time of the active phase of the development of diseases dangerous for these plants, early varieties are already ripening and the crop has already been removed from the vine by this moment. And since there are no fruits on the grape bushes, growers have the opportunity to carry out antifungal treatment with stronger and more effective drugs.
Another advantage of this group of plants is the fact that they ripen with a small number of sunny days. This advantage of early and ultra-early varieties allows them to be grown even in Russia with short and not too warm summers.
The indisputable advantage of early varieties is that after an early harvest, the vine gets a lot of time to mature and accumulate nutrients for wintering. Caring for these plants is easy. Plants need to ensure proper planting, pruning, watering, top dressing. You can get an early harvest by choosing the right seedling variety and creating comfortable conditions for its development. Below we present you the most popular grape varieties (early and ultra-early).
This grape came to us from the East. The very first seedless varieties appeared in Central Asia as a result ofnatural mutation. All varieties of this species are distinguished by a large amount of sugar. Many people value Kishmish for its lack of pits and pleasant dessert taste.
Previously, these varieties were grown exclusively in the southern regions, but in recent years, thanks to the work of breeders, amazing Kishmish grape varieties of ultra-early and early ripening, resistant to Russian frosts, have been obtained. Even gardeners in Siberia and the Urals successfully breed them on their plots.
Early varieties for the middle lane
The climatic features of these regions make it possible to grow many heat-loving crops, including grapes. Given the likelihood of early frosts, gardeners prefer plants with super-early and early ripening. This significantly increases the chances of getting a crop.
The range of such varieties is quite large and this complicates the choice for beginner winegrowers. In this difficult matter, you can trust the rating indicators, which determine the best representatives of the culture according to several factors: frost resistance, disease resistance, yield, fruiting after planting seedlings.
Currently, there are many varieties of this variety. The most popular of them include:
- Kishmish № 342.
- Rip Grapes.
- Rosb alt.
- Transformation and others.
We will try to tell you about some of them.
Kishmish № 342
Ultra early varietyKishmish grapes are successfully cultivated in the middle lane, as it easily tolerates frosts down to -26 ° C. It has been very popular for many years. Ripens quite early (105 days). This is a vigorous plant. Large clusters weigh about 500 grams. Golden-green berries are not too large (3 g). Seeds are missing. The taste is pleasant, surprises with juiciness and sweetness. Berries can be eaten fresh or dried.
A variety of ultra-early grape variety Kishmish. Rosb alt belongs to the dining group. It was bred by Russian breeders. Harvest ripens in 105 days. The plant is strong and tall. Large conical bunches are formed on the lashes, which can weigh up to one and a half kilograms. Oval-shaped berries, white in color, weighing from 2.5 g, have a sweet with a slight sourness and very juicy pulp. Bushes begin to bear fruit after planting in the second year.
The variety is responsive to fertilizing with potassium-phosphorus compounds. Prefers vigorous rootstocks. Needs pruning. The yield and he alth of the vine depends on how competently it is carried out. On the vine there should be from 8 to 12 shoots, the excess is cut off. Remove weak branches.
Irrigation depends on weather conditions. In the heat, it is carried out every three days. Under each bush it is necessary to pour at least four buckets of water. Sandy soils require more water. The last watering is carried out once a week about two weeks before harvest. In spring and early summer, grapes need fertilizing containing nitrogen andorganic fertilizers. From mid-summer, the plant needs phosphorus and potassium to form fruits. Nitrogen top dressing during this period is stopped.
This is a very early grape. It matures one of the very first. Pleases with a plentiful harvest this grape variety of ultra-early ripening. It takes him 80 days to fully ripen the berries. A powerful bush (about 1.5 m) is densely covered with foliage. Brushes are not very large, no more than 400 g, medium or loose density.
Berries of medium and small size, painted in light yellow color, slightly elongated, pitted. The pulp is juicy and quite dense, hidden under a thin skin. Bushes give many shoots and stepchildren. At the same time, experts recommend leaving no more than 25 shoots. Otherwise, the hive will be too busy. The vine should be cut short - for the next season, no more than 4 buds are left on the sleeve.
According to the winegrowers, this variety is of medium frost resistance (about 21 ° C). Bushes require shelter for the winter. Observing this condition, you can grow this ultra-early grape variety in the middle lane. Seedless requires preventive treatments that prevent infection of the plant with fungal diseases. The variety is characterized by poor disease resistance.
Another ultra-early grape variety, the photo of which we posted in this article. Its fruits ripen on the 95th day. The bush has a strong growth. Large, up to 600 g bunch has an average density. Berries are small, black,round bone. The pulp, covered with a thin skin, is very juicy. Clusters remain on the bushes for a long time, without losing their taste and commercial characteristics.
This is one of the most productive ultra-early grape varieties. Up to 20 kg of tasty and he althy berries can be removed from one bush per season. In their reviews, gardeners note the good frost resistance of the variety, which can withstand up to -24 ° C. At the same time, it requires medium pruning, which should be carried out in late autumn before the onset of the first frost. Another advantage of the variety is resistance to fungal diseases.
Yulian and Anniversary Novocherkassky
Since we are talking about the most fruitful ultra-early grape varieties, we should mention Julian, which gives bunches weighing up to one and a half kilograms, and its closest “relative” - Novocherkassky Jubilee with bunches up to 1.2 kg. One bush gives up to 25 kg of selected and tasty berries, ripening for 105 days.
An enviable harvest will also please the owners of the Jubilee Novocherkassky variety - up to 15-18 kg. At the same time, its bunches weigh no more than 800 g.
Express is one of the ultra-early grape varieties. Ripe berries appear on the vine after 105 days, in the first decade of August. The bush of medium height gives medium-sized clusters weighing no more than 350 g. The berries are black in color, rounded. The pulp is very juicy, has a pleasant taste and aroma.
Gardeners note a consistently high yield, the variety is unpretentious to weather conditions and is recognized as universal. It can be grown both in the central part of Russia and in the northern latitudes. plant withstandfrosts down to -32 °C. Can be used fresh and for making wine, juice, raisins.
Describing the best, most delicious, high-yielding varieties of ultra-early grapes, it is necessary to note the Transfiguration. The fruits ripen on the 110th day. A very powerful bush produces clusters weighing from 700 g to 1.5 kg, and in some cases they can reach 3 kg. The density is medium and somewhat loose.
Oval-elongated berries, large, painted pink. The pulp is very fleshy and juicy with a sweet, barely perceptible sourness. Bushes tolerate frost down to -23 ° C. Subject to grape mite attacks and fungal diseases. It is unpretentious to the soil, but experienced growers do not recommend planting bushes near trees. The plant must be protected from a sharp north wind. The vine is cut to six eyes and left up to 24-28 shoots. For the winter, after pruning, this variety is pressed to the ground and covered with soil.
Grapes Pineapple early gives a harvest in 120 days. This plant belongs to self-pollinated crops. This greatly simplifies cultivation. Clusters of medium size weighing no more than 230 g, but with proper care and favorable conditions, they can be quite large - up to 500 g.
Gardeners consider a cluster of a cylindrical shape with a medium-density structure to be a feature of this magnificent variety. The fruits are round in shape and are amber-yellow in color. Their weight can vary from 2 to 4 g. This variety attractsgardeners with excellent taste qualities - caramel flavor is complemented by hints of pineapple. Thin and delicate skin is almost not felt when consumed.
Ripe berries can be stored on the bushes for a long time. Having planted a bush, it should be watered abundantly and mulched with sawdust, straw, mowed grass. This will keep moisture in the hole. Plant care involves timely watering, especially if the summer is hot, loosening the soil, removing weeds.
Gourmet early grapes: variety description, photo
A well-known breeder from Novocherkassk V. N. Krainov, having crossed the Talisman grape varieties with white berries, beloved by many, with Radiant Kishmish, which gives pink clusters, received several hybrids, which were later called Gourmets. One of them is Early Gourmet.
This is an early table grape (110 days). Clusters of this variety weigh almost 500 g, while on adult bushes they can reach 1.3 kg. Large, egg-shaped berries are covered with a rather dense skin. They weigh about 9 grams. Tasters rated the original taste of fleshy pulp with a pronounced aroma of nutmeg at 9.1 points. The berries contain no more than three medium-sized seeds.
Ripe berries contain 15.6% sugar and 4.9 grams of titratable acids in one liter of juice. The cultivation of this variety is recommended in a covering form, since it has a low frost resistance - about -23 ° C. It is necessary to ration the harvest of "Early Gourmet", otherwise the berries will becomesmall and lose their original taste. In addition, the ripening period may be delayed. After the formation of ovaries about 1/3, they must be removed.
This variety was bred by breeders from Russia during the crossing of Muscat Hamburg and Severny varieties. The hybrid is cold hardy. Bisexual flowers guarantee good pollination, which determines a stable yield. Early grapes Violet, the description of which is often published in horticultural publications, is cultivated in Dagestan, Krasnodar Territory, Odessa and Kherson Regions. The bushes are tall, have intensively developing shoots.
Clusters of conical shape, small in size, weighing no more than 200 g. Dark purple berries weighing about two grams, ripening in 120 days, are covered with a light wax coating. Their taste is created by a whole range of shades; rose and nutmeg are felt in the aroma. Bushes withstand severe frosts (down to -27 ° C). They develop well in mountainous and plain areas.
Ultra-early grape variety, a photo of which can be seen in almost all gardening guides. From the moment the buds ripen to the full ripening of the berries, about 110 days pass. The plant is vigorous, preferring space. The bunch is massive, weighing from 600 g to a kilogram, medium density, conical shape.
Large berries are painted in dark purple color, with one stone, oblong shape. The flesh is moderately sweet, crispy and fleshy under a thin skin. This variety tolerates frosts down to -23 ° C, normally withstands return spring frosts. sustainableto most grape diseases. Needs high pruning for 8-10 buds.
Koreanka berries are high in acetylsalicylic acid and are used to make grape vinegar.
Common and very popular ultra-early grape variety. Berries ripen on day 105. The bushes are of medium height, and the clusters are large, of medium or loose density, weighing up to 1.5 kg. Sometimes brushes reach huge sizes - up to two and a half kilograms.
Berries, cream-yellow, large, round, but slightly elongated. They are covered with a thin and delicate skin. The pulp is very juicy and sweet, quite dense with a nutmeg aftertaste. The variety is resistant to frost down to -23 ° C and fungal diseases.
Shrubs need medium or short pruning for 5-8 buds. It is necessary to leave vigorous shoots, in order to avoid thinning of the vine and obtain a high-quality and plentiful harvest.
Ultra early grape varieties for Siberia
The development of northern viticulture became possible thanks to the work of breeders who managed to develop hybrids of ultra-early and early varieties that can withstand heavy rains in summer and severe frosts in winter. These varieties are resistant to spring frosts, harsh winters and fungal diseases.
These species should be planted in the warmest areas of the garden, which are protected from wind and excess moisture. Bushes should be broken off and pinched. Watering is carried out once every seven days. In autumn, the vine is cut and fed with potash plants.phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers. The first two years, the seedling is covered for the winter. It is necessary to gradually accustom him to severe frosts, leaving and adding one sleeve each year.
This is a very early variety bred by Siberian breeders, famous for its high yields. Its bushes grow quite widely. Many clusters ripen on one vine. Ripened berries are stored on the bush for a long time, and this does not affect the taste.
The clusters are large, reaching a weight of one kilogram. Amber berries with a light green tint are small, sweet in taste with a delicate nutmeg aroma. Ripen after 100 days. Their dense skin covers them, so the variety tolerates transportation well. When overloading the bushes, the size of the clusters may decrease. To prevent this, the inflorescences are normalized by removing the extra ones.
The variety tolerates fairly severe frosts (down to -25 °C) without loss. However, the variety does not have reliable protection against pests.
The berries of this early variety ripen in 115 days. They are used as a table view for making wines. The yield of the variety is average, but the transportability is low. Clusters can vary in weight from 500 grams to a kilogram.
The berries are quite large, weighing almost 6 grams, with a special nutmeg flavor, painted green. With abundant watering or rainy weather, they may crack. The sweetness of the berries can attract wasps. To protect the bushes, you need to purchase special nets.
The bushes tolerate frost well (down to -27 °C). The variety is resistant to many diseases.
Berries ripen in 110 days. The variety is used as a table species, as well as for making raisins. The bush is characterized by strong growth, gives high yields. The weight of the bunch rarely exceeds 400 grams. Large blue berries are covered with a thin wax coating. Grapes are fleshy, with few seeds. No smell.
Today it is a well-known and popular hybrid form, bred in 1972 by the famous Siberian breeder R. F. Sharov. This grape with bisexual flowers, therefore, is self-pollinating. Clusters may be small or medium in size. Large, round blue, almost black berries have an exquisite sweet and sour taste. In Siberia, ripening occurs in mid-August. High-yielding variety.
On one shoot can grow up to 3-4 clusters. All stepchildren are fruitful. The clusters on them are smaller, but the berries are larger, although they ripen a little later than the main ones.
This northern ultra-early variety, the berries of which can be tasted as early as 85 days. A medium or small bunch is literally strewn with small, but very sweet black grapes. The pulp is very tasty and tender, with small bones and a rather thick skin. Ideal for making juice and aromatic wine.
The bush requires strong and frequent pruning, but it does not need shelter. Two days before flowering, pinch the top of the bushes. Planting bushesin a well lit area. The main advantage over other varieties is the very high winter hardiness of the Amur black, resistance to many diseases. Easily withstands frosts up to 36 ° C. It develops poorly in regions with moderately wet winters.