Gaillardia perennial: photo, description, planting and care, breeding methods

Gaillardia perennial: photo, description, planting and care, breeding methods
Gaillardia perennial: photo, description, planting and care, breeding methods
Anonim

Solar chamomile, as Gaillardia is also called perennial, is quite a popular plant that came to us from America. She fell in love with many gardeners for her unpretentious care and attractive appearance. In this article you will find information about perennial gaillardia, planting and caring for which will give you exceptional pleasure. Let's start with this bright and beautiful flower.

Description of perennial gaillardia

Gaillardia perennial

A flowering plant of this genus has several similar names - gaillardia, gaillardia and gaillardia. The perennial flower garden belongs to the Astrov family and is considered a drought-resistant plant. The name of the genus was given in honor of Judge Gaillard, who is fond of botany.

Perennial gaillardia is a rather small bush, the height of which varies from 25 to 70 centimeters depending on the variety. The branched stem is abundantly covered with leaves, the shape of which resembles a shoulder blade.The surface of the leaves is covered with small hairs. Bright double flowers have a diameter of 10 to 15 centimeters. Gaillardia blooms profusely and for a long time throughout the summer until the autumn frosts. The color scheme is quite diverse - from pale yellow and orange to red and brick. On the same shrub, you can most often find flowers of various colors. Basically, the edges of the petals are lighter in color than the middle of the flower. Attractive in these plants and a long period of preservation of decorative qualities after cutting. Gaillardia perennial is completely unpretentious in care.

Popular varieties

Gaillardia perennial

Today, about 25 varieties of perennial gaillardia are known. In this section, consider the most popular and beautiful varieties of this flowering perennial.

Hybrid gaillardia was obtained by crossing the main variety - beautiful gaillardia - with other varieties of the plant. Some hybrids are so similar to each other that only an experienced gardener can tell them apart. Hybrid varieties have a height of 20-30 centimeters higher than usual, as well as pubescent lanceolate leaves. Double flowers (mostly red and yellow) appear in early summer. Among the undersized varieties suitable for creating live borders and pot planting, one can distinguish:

  • Arizona Sun - a dwarf variety, the height of the bushes does not exceed 20 centimeters. Differs in abundant and long flowering, lasting until the first frost.
  • Primavera - the height of the bushes does not exceed 25centimeters, one rosette is formed from 7-8 large peduncles.

The most popular varieties with larger bush and flower sizes are:

  • Kobold - branched stems of this bush reach 40 centimeters. Large orange flowers with a yellow border.
  • Burgundy - rich red, almost wine inflorescences reach a diameter of 12 centimeters.
Gaillardia burgundy

Zonne - the height of the bush reaches 60 centimeters, the flowers have a double color: golden and dark yellow

In addition to hybrid varieties, spinous varieties of gaillardia are widely used. This variety has rather tall bushes - about 70 centimeters. The most popular varieties of spinous gaillardia are:

  • Dazzler - bright red flowers with orange edging.
  • Wirral Flame - the dark color of the central part of the flower gradually turns into a bright yellow edging.
  • Croftway Yellow - the whole inflorescence has a uniform and delicate yellow tint;
  • Mandarin - an original shade of bright orange baskets with smooth transitions to yellow shades. The flowers of this variety are quite lush and large.

Gaillardia in landscape design

When designing various flower beds, flower beds and creating flower arrangements, the brightness of colors and the variety of Gaillardia varieties are taken into account. Experienced landscape designers skillfully combine the warm and sunny hues of these flowers with other ornamental plants. Due to active and long flowering, as well as bright colors, gaillardia oftenused to create living borders, and composite flower beds.

Growing Gaillardia

Particularly popular are varieties with two- or three-color baskets, which form a kind of ring that sets off the central dark disc of the flower. Bright bushes of gaillardia wonderfully set off various green shrubs and lawns. Perennials can be grown both in open ground conditions and in various flowerpots. Often, different varieties of Gaillardia are combined in one flower arrangement.

The most successful combination is obtained by growing gaillardia with chamomile, asparagus and cornflower. In addition, these flowers look great in bouquets (for this purpose, do not use undersized perennial gaillardia). Many decorators and florists use faded plants to decorate bouquets and interiors. Terry seed balls are dried and used to create various decorative compositions.

Lighting Requirements

Gaillardia perennial

For growing perennial Gaillardia flowers, you should choose a place well lit by the sun. It is also important that the site is well protected from drafts. The planting site should be open to sunlight, and the flowers should be illuminated for as long as possible. Flowers should not be planted in the shade, as the plant will be weak and the color of the flowers will become pale and unattractive.

Soil selection

Soil selection

According to reviews of perennial Gaillardia, the soil for growing should be light, loose andfertile. Sandy soil is considered the most preferred option. On loams and soil with high acidity, a weaker development of the plant was noted. In addition, you should not fertilize the soil for planting this plant with manure. To organize more comfortable conditions, it is permissible to add a small amount of wood ash and river sand to the soil. The most important condition for planting a plant is the presence of a good drainage layer. It is also important to repot the plant every 5-6 years with the addition of fresh soil.

Seed propagation

Gaillardia seedling

Among beginner gardeners, the most popular propagation method is seed. For this, the seed is collected in the fall, and planted in late February or the first half of March. Seeds of perennial gaillardia are sown in a spacious container filled with a nutrient mixture. Planting material should not be buried - it is enough to distribute the seeds over the surface of the soil at a distance of 1-2 centimeters from each other, and then sprinkle with a thin layer of sand. Moisturizing the seeds is carried out using a sprayer. After that, the container is covered with film or glass and sent to a warm and well-lit place.

Every day, the shelter is removed for 4-5 hours to air the seedlings. But do not allow the soil to dry out. With the advent of the first shoots, the film is removed, and the container is transferred to a cooler and more humid place. The picking of perennial gaillardia is carried out after the growth of sprouts and the appearance of 2-3 leaves. Transplant seedlings either into a more spaciouscontainer, or in individual cups. Landing in open ground is carried out with the onset of warm weather - in May. At the same time, the distance between plantings should be at least 20 centimeters, and between rows - at least 30 centimeters. To get denser bushes, it is permissible to plant 2-4 seedlings in one hole.

Vegetative propagation

For this method of propagation of perennial gaillardia, an adult bush is used, whose age does not exceed five years. The mother bush is dug up in early spring and divided into several parts with a sharp knife or shovel so that each part has a good root system and he althy shoots. Each part is planted in separate pre-prepared holes. It is recommended to divide the bush into no more than five parts for better engraftment and development of the plant. The vegetative method of reproduction allows you to save all the decorative qualities of the mother bush, whether it is the color of the flowers or the size of the bush. That is why dividing the bush is considered the most preferred method of reproduction while maintaining the species characteristics of the plant.

There is another kind of vegetative propagation - cuttings. To do this, after digging an adult bush, the most powerful and he althy root is selected, from which the planting material is subsequently cut (the length of the cuttings is about 5-6 centimeters). The cuttings are rooted in a greenhouse or greenhouse.

Irrigation

After planting Gaillardia for many years, care for it consists mainly in competent watering. Since these flowers do not tolerate high soil moisture,moderate watering should be organized. Basically, rainwater is enough for the plant. But during long periods of dry summer, gaillardia is watered every 8-10 days. Each bush requires no more than five liters of warm settled water.

Feeding

In order to prolong flowering and make it brighter, perennial gaillardia should be fed in a timely manner. Complex mineral preparations and rotted humus or compost are used as dressings. The first fertilization is carried out during the period of bud formation, the second time the flowers are fed at the peak of flowering, and the third feeding is the final one and is carried out a month before the onset of frost, in preparation for winter. Top dressing is applied exclusively with watering - so fertilizers do not burn tender plants and are better distributed in the soil.

Garter

Growing perennial gaillardia involves not only standard care procedures (watering and top dressing), but also tying up large and heavy flowers. To do this, at the very beginning of flowering, a future support should be prepared. You can make it from a wooden peg or plastic tubes that will protect the bush from breaking flower stalks and shoots.

If you plan to grow Gaillardia in a composition with more powerful and strong flowers, then it is not necessary to build a support. In this case, the garter is carried out only at your request.

Preparing for winter

3-4 weeks before the expected onset of frost, perennial gaillardia begin to prepare for winter. The procedure consists in cutting flower stalks, removingwithered shoots and fertilization. These actions will allow the plant to get stronger and build up a root system that can withstand the cold. In addition, by removing old shoots and flower stalks, you will help the plant stock up on nutrients.

In general, Gaillardia is considered to be a fairly hardy plant, able to withstand even hard and prolonged frosts. However, to provide additional protection, cover the bush with a small layer of peat or dry leaves. With the advent of spring, the shelter must be removed so that the plant does not begin to rot and develops faster.

Diseases and pests

Most often, perennial gaillardia is exposed to various fungal diseases - powdery mildew, gray rot and spotting. This happens due to high soil moisture. To protect flowers from these diseases, it is important to observe the watering regimen and try not to overmoisten the soil. If infected bushes are found, they should be immediately cleaned of damaged leaves, and he althy parts of the plant should be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. With a significant lesion, treatment with potassium permanganate may not be enough, therefore, colloidal sulfur and Bordeaux mixture are used. If the bush does not respond to treatment, then it must be completely dug up and burned.

The main pests of solar chamomile are aphids and whiteflies, which damage the leaves and stems. The preparations "Aktellik" and "Decis" help to fight them. Processing should be carried out at the slightest sign of infection of the plant with harmful insects.

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