Different materials can be used for the construction of suburban private houses. Very often, residential low-rise buildings are erected, for example, from timber or foam blocks. Both of these types of materials allow you to build quite durable and reliable houses. Technical characteristics in terms of weight, the ability to "breathe" and retain heat, timber and foam blocks are similar. Therefore, with their use, they often build, including combined houses. From foam blocks and wood, according to projects developed independently, or, for example, found on the Internet, you can actually build a very comfortable and durable building.
Feasibility of construction
Building houses from foam blocks is a fairly simple and fast procedure. However, this material cannot be attributed to natural, of course. In any case, in terms of microclimate comfort, foam block houses are certainly much inferior to wooden houses.
It is much more convenient to live in a cobbled house than in a built onefrom almost any other material. However, the technology of erecting such buildings is somewhat laborious and complex. In addition, timber costs, and especially in the steppe regions, unfortunately, it is very expensive.
The use of wood and foam blocks at the same time, thus, makes it possible to reduce the cost of construction and at the same time to erect a building, some rooms in which will be very comfortable for living, thanks to a good, he althy microclimate.
Design: basic option
They build combined concrete-wooden houses in the overwhelming majority of cases in the architectural style of a mountain chalet. In this direction, for a long time, solid stone was used for the construction of the first floors, and wood was used for the second. Chalet buildings look very stylish and, like many other buildings of "folk" architecture, are considered very comfortable to live in.
How are projects of combined houses made of wood and foam blocks being drawn up in our time? Modern buildings of this type are also in most cases erected in two floors. At the same time, their lower box is assembled from foam blocks. The second floor of such a cottage is being built from timber. That is, the construction technology used today is very similar to that used in antiquity.
This architectural solution makes it possible to reduce the cost and simplify the construction procedure, as well as to make the building as comfortable as possible for living. In houses of this design, a kitchen, a bath, a boiler room and various utility and technical rooms are located on the ground floor. On the second, they are equippedbedrooms, offices, children's rooms. In some cases, the living room is also equipped here.
Two-storey combined cottage, among other things, has another important advantage. Such a building will serve in the future much longer than a fully cobbled one. It is the first floors of houses that usually suffer the most from natural moisture. Foam blocks, unlike wood, are not subject to decay and the formation of fungus.
Design features of two-storey cottages
The second floor in such a house can be full-fledged or it can be an ordinary spacious attic. At the same time, the second construction option is the most popular among owners of country houses.
Residential combined buildings with a full-fledged second floor, of course, are more comfortable. However, the construction of such houses is quite expensive due to the need to use a large amount of timber. Therefore, such combined cottages are not built very often in our country. A feature of such houses is, among other things, that they are usually covered with a flat roof. This architectural solution allows you to give the building the most modern and stylish appearance.
How else can it be built: the second common option
What else could be the project of a combined house made of wood and foam blocks in our time? Using the chalet style, of course, allows you to build very beautiful residential buildings. However, not all people love two-story houses, unfortunately. ByAccording to many owners of suburban areas, in such buildings you usually have to walk too much stairs. Such owners of allotments should, of course, choose a slightly different option for building a combined house. In this case, the walls of the residential building itself are assembled from timber. Further, next to it, an extension of foam blocks is laid out for technical premises.
Such buildings are also quite comfortable for living. However, it is necessary to build combined buildings of this variety with strict observance of certain technologies. Otherwise, the house, unfortunately, will turn out to be short-lived. The construction of one-story combined buildings has some nuances.
How to make a project
Before you start building a house from foam blocks and wood, like any other, of course, you need:
- draw a diagram of the building with the dimensions of all elements;
- choose the type of foundation for the house;
- determine the number of necessary timber and foam blocks, etc.
Weight and foam blocks, and timber are small. Therefore, too powerful foundations for such combined buildings are usually not erected. However, the bearing capacity of the base of the house of this variety should still be large enough. Both timber and foam blocks do not differ in too high tensile strength. Therefore, spring heaving with insufficient bearing capacity of the foundation will certainly lead to cracks in the walls of the combined house.
Selection of blocks for construction
Foam blocks for the construction of buildings of thisvarieties are standard. This material is sold today by many companies. But to choose for the construction of a suburban residential building, of course, you need products of this variety only from trusted manufacturers with a good reputation. Most often, foam blocks 200x300x600 mm are used for the construction of combined houses. In any case, in this case, you need to choose a sufficiently strong and even material intended for laying facades.
For the construction of a combined building, in addition to the foam blocks themselves, you will also need to purchase glue. Such material is quite expensive today. The consumption of glue for foam blocks, however, is usually small. For 1 m3 of laying the box of the lower floor of a combined house, most often it takes no more than 1.5-1.6 kg of such a dry mix.
What beam do you need
Lumber for a combined house, like for any other, should be chosen very carefully and carefully. Only the highest quality timber is suitable for the construction of residential buildings.
For the construction of the second floor of a combined house, it is best to purchase lumber made from logs cut down in winter. At this time of the year, there is no movement of juice in the wood. Therefore, such lumber is considered the most suitable for construction. In any case, the humidity of the timber acquired for the construction of a combined house should not exceed 12-18%. Additionally, before starting construction, it is also advisable to dry the purchased lumber in a place protected from the sun for several months.
Of course, to build the second floor of a combined house, you need a bar without a large number of knots, with precise geometry. In relation to the type of wood in this case, no restrictions are provided. It is allowed to build the walls of residential buildings from a bar of almost any hardwood or softwood lumber.
The dimensions of combined wood-concrete buildings can be very different. It will be quite comfortable for living as a house 10 by 10 and made of foam blocks and timber, 9x9, 10x17, 15x6 m, etc. Below is an example of a plan for such a building in the style of a chalet 10x11 m with a ground floor trimmed with artificial stone, a veranda and two balconies. Downstairs in this house there is a living room, a bathroom, a hall and technical rooms. At the same time, the attic floor, built from timber, is equipped with bedrooms, a library-office and additional bathrooms.
The photo below also shows a project of a combined house made of foam blocks and wood with a straight roof. Such buildings, of course, can also be very comfortable to live in. On the ground floor in this house there is a living room, a hall and a kitchen. The second floor has bedrooms and a bath. One of the rooms in this building does not have an interfloor overlap. Also in the house of this layout, another living room is equipped on the basement floor.
What foundation to lay
Most often, combined concrete-wooden houses are built on a slab-strip foundation,allowing in the future to equip the basement. But of course, it is allowed to build such residential buildings on simpler and cheaper grounds.
In the project of a two-story cottage made of wood and foam blocks or a one-story cottage, for example, an ordinary strip foundation can be provided. Such foundations are characterized by high bearing capacity. At the same time, they are relatively inexpensive to build. Under one-story combined houses (and sometimes under two-story houses), on sufficiently strong soils, columnar foundations with a grillage can also be poured.
Of course, you can build buildings of this architecture on piles. This type of base will be an excellent solution if a building of foam blocks and timber is being built on soft ground with a solid substrate located at some depth.
Stages of building a two-storey cottage
As already mentioned, it is these projects of combined houses made of timber and foam blocks that are most popular with owners of country houses. The construction of a residential building of this design may include the following steps:
- Filling the foundation or basement.
- Building a box of foam blocks.
- Filling the armored belt.
- Installation of floor beams.
- Assembly of the floor.
- Building an attic or second floor from wood.
- Assembling the roof.
The foundation for such a building is poured using standard technology in formwork with reinforcement. They come up more often, of course.only such houses with a roof made of wood. In this case, the truss system of the combined building is attached to the timber of the second floor through special movable elements - “sleds”. This is necessary in order to subsequently avoid distortions and cracking during shrinkage of lumber.
When building a first floor box of foam blocks on a waterproofed foundation, first lay out the first row using cement mortar. All subsequent rows are laid on a thin layer of special glue. This construction technology helps prevent the formation of cold bridges in the walls of the first floor and, as a result, the deterioration of the microclimate in the entire combined house.
A feature of the beam is, among other things, that it has a small weight. However, the second floor of this material on the box of the first load in the future will still be significant. Therefore, masonry from foam blocks, including with your own hands, should be carried out with mandatory reinforcement. Metal rods need to be strengthened every 4 rows of the wall. It is necessary to lay such reinforcement in strobes previously made in the upper plane of the blocks.
In the process of building the box, you should also follow the seams. Their thickness should be uniform over the entire area of the facades. This will make the masonry not only neat, but also very durable. In any case, the consumption of glue for foam blocks during the construction of the facades of the first floor of a combined building should be approximately equal to the required 1.5-1.6 kg per 1 m23.
After the box is erected, it is necessary to fill in the armored belt from cement mortar along its top in the formwork. Such a reinforcing structure will also have to be insulated by inserting polystyrene foam strips along the edge of the formwork assembled under it from the side of the room.
Second floor assembly
Walls and pediments during the construction of the attic of a combined building are also laid out according to standard technology. In the corners, the timber in such houses can be connected:
- on dowels;
- in dovetail;
- thorn etc.
Partitions in the attic when using such material, it is allowed to erect after assembling the box. Gables from timber are usually assembled using a template knocked down from boards.
Before the construction of the second floor on the foam block, it is imperative to mount the ceiling. On it, in the future, it is most convenient and will collect the gables of the future attic. Once these elements are ready, they should simply be lifted and placed vertically. You can, of course, assemble the gables and not on the floor, but directly on the spot, between the extreme rafters.
Features of the construction of one-story combined houses
Buildings of this architecture can also have different sizes. However, the extension in them usually, of course, has a smaller area than the main residential part. Near houses 10 by 10 m, for example, boxes of foam blocks with an area of 10x5, 5x5, 4x5 m, etc. are often erected.
Such buildings are being erected, as in the first case, using standard technologies.This applies to the laying of both types of materials. However, the construction of combined houses made of foam blocks and one-story wood still has some of its own characteristics.
Foam blocks, as an artificial material, are able to maintain their dimensions and geometry throughout the life of the building. The beam, even well dried, gives strong shrinkage over time. Therefore, when erecting a one-story combined building, it is best to immediately build only a wooden box. Then it is worth waiting for about six months for it to dry completely, and only after that proceed with the construction of a foam block extension for technical premises.
It is impossible to rigidly fasten the block and foam block boxes to each other. These building materials have different weights. Accordingly, the structures erected from them will also give unequal shrinkage. With rigid fastening in the walls of the building, cracks may subsequently form because of this.
Foundations for the cobbled and foam block parts of buildings for the same reason should be built individually. The gap between the boxes is best closed with a tarred board. The same element for insulation and depreciation is usually mounted between the foundations of the parts of the combined building.