The hip roof often forms the basis of the architectural solutions of houses that have a European style. The design of such a roof is not so reliable, but very aesthetic. If you take even the simplest version as a base, you can diversify the system with different elements that will act as decorations and become signs of an exquisite style.
The simplest hip roof is a design of four slopes, two of which have the shape of a triangle. They are called hips. They are located at the ends of the building and connect the ridge with the eaves. The frontal planes have the shape of a trapezoid and have a large area. The ramp extends from the ridge to the eaves.
Today, half-hip roofs are also being built, which belong to the Dutch style. The cornices of the end slopes are located above the front ones. Installation is carried out in cases where it is planned to place a living space in the attic space.
Even if you decide to deal with a device of a more complex type of the described type of roof, the main elements and nodes will remain traditional. Their installation is carried out using the same technology. The design includes the following parts:
- corner rafter;
- short rafter;
- intermediate rafter legs;
- stand supporting the skate;
- wind beam;
- short rafter leg;
Corner rafters are placed at a smaller angle than intermediate elements. For side and intermediate rafters it is necessary to use boards with a section of 50 x 150 mm. Short rafter legs are fixed on the corner rafter board. The ridge will have the same cross-sectional size as the rafter legs. The rack will support the skate. It is located at the junction of the rafters and the ridge beam.
To increase the overhang of the roof, the beam is mounted to the rafter legs. This provides protection from the weather. A wind beam is fixed to the rafters. It is located obliquely and is located on the side of the roof that is windy. Sometimes installation is carried out on trapezoidal slopes.
The short rafter leg is used in the hip structure and is fixed to the corner rafter. Mauerlat is a bar that is located along the perimeter of the walls. Another detail of the system is the sprengel. Heprovides rigidity and takes the load off the walls. It is placed diagonally and fixed on the Mauerlat. Struts are installed at different angles to the rafter leg. It all depends on whether the attic will be used to create a room.
Diagonal or side rafters, as well as the rib, can be installed on the front side or on both sides. Runs is the distance between the fastening of the rafters to the beam. This step will depend on the weight of the roofing material and the snow load in your area.
Determination of the angle of inclination
The angle of the hip roof must be determined taking into account some factors. The higher this value, the more costs you will incur for construction work. The slope value is calculated as the ratio of the size of the ridge to half the width of the building. This value must be multiplied by 100.
When creating a hip roof project, after determining the angle of its inclination, you must select the roofing material. If the angle is more than 20 degrees, then tiles and slate are perfect. With a smaller slope, water will enter the joints and snow will clog, which will shorten the life of the structure.
Bituminous roll materials are used on flat roofs or if the angle of inclination exceeds 30 degrees. If you equip a hip roof with your own hands, and its angle of inclination is 10 degrees, then you can use the following materials for shelter:
- roof panels;
- metal profile;
- piece wood materials;
Influence of loads
The scheme of the hip roof is drawn up taking into account the loads on the rafter system. It will be subject to temporary and permanent loads. The main design parameter of the snow load is 180 kg/m2. This is true for central Russia. A snow bag stuck at the top can increase this figure to 450 kg/m2.
If the slope is more than 60 degrees, then the snow load is not taken into account. The wind load for central Russia is standard and is 35 kg/m2. If the slope is less than 30 ˚, then the wind correction is not taken into account. The total mass is calculated taking into account the amount of materials used and the area of \u200b\u200bthe hip roof. Before starting work, you should definitely calculate the strength of the rafters and find out what the possible deformation is under different conditions.
When building a house with a hip roof, you must take into account some factors, among them should be highlighted:
- type of rafter system;
- reliability of bearing walls;
- slope angle;
- rafter section size.
As for the truss system, it can be hinged or layered. To calculate the proportions of structures, you can use formulas that will achieve the strength and reliability of the roof. For example, the height from the floor to the ceiling can be calculated by multiplying the step between the rafters from the end hip side by the distance between the rafters along the length of the building. This value must be divided by 2.
To know whichthe amount of roofing material you need to purchase, you need to determine the area of \u200b\u200bthe roof. To do this, the roof is divided into separate components, each of which will be indicated by a geometric figure. For example, the area of a triangle is calculated by multiplying the length of its base by its height. The work should be divided by 2.
Calculation of the hip roof also provides for the determination of the area of the trapezoid. To do this, the lengths of the bases must be added and multiplied by the height of the figure, and then divided by two. The areas are added together and multiplied by 2. This will give the total roof area. Next, you should find out what is the area of \u200b\u200bone sheet of covering material. To do this, its width is multiplied by its length. Next, the total roof area must be divided by the area of \u200b\u200bone sheet, which will allow you to get the number of paintings that should be purchased.
The hip roof, the calculations and drawings of which are presented in the article, is arranged after the purchase of covering material. Its quantity should be purchased with a margin of 10-15%.
Roof installation procedure
If a hip roof is chosen as the roof structure, then work must begin with drawing up a diagram of the truss system. Next, calculations are made of parameters that depend on the distance between the walls of the house and the presence of capital partitions.
Materials are purchased according to the calculations. At the same stage, tools are prepared. Now you can prepare for the strapping of the walls for the installation of the truss system. Marking is carried out for the installation of the truss system. Installing the system inaccordance with the project is one of the important stages. At the final stage, the roof is arranged.
Before proceeding with the installation of a hip roof, it is necessary to select materials. You will need well-dried wood and metal fasteners, as well as anchor bolts, self-tapping screws and roofing nails. As for the metal elements, they are fasteners and corners, which provide a higher reliability of the structure. One of them is the sliding mount. It is located at the bottom of the rafters and is fixed to the Mauerlat. After its installation, you can eliminate the risk of system deformation during shrinkage of load-bearing walls.
Straps act as one of the fasteners. With the help of them, you can connect parts, for example, floor beams, rafters or Mauerlat. For the manufacture of wooden elements, you should use: timber 100 x 150 mm and 50 x 150 mm. Boards 25 x 150 mm and timber with a section of 50 x 150 mm. He will go to make a ridge and rafters.
Experts quite often recommend to carry out work using boards or timber of the same section. This will achieve strength and reliability. Boards 25 x 150 mm will go to the crate. It will also be necessary to purchase roofing material, vapor barrier film and insulation. The vapor barrier will be located under the crate, it is laid on the rafters.
Roofing material for the described type of roof can be a soft coating, because it will be easier to fix it on complex structuresconfiguration. Under such a roof, plywood flooring is made. It is also necessary to purchase an antiseptic compound with which you will process the wood before starting installation. You will also need 4 mm steel wire, with which you can fix some elements in the load-bearing wall.
Preparation of tools
A one-story house with a hip roof will look very attractive. If you decide to resort to the installation of just such a roof, then you should take care of the following tools:
- wooden ruler;
- electric jigsaw;
If you do not have a hammer available, it is recommended to purchase one that has a nail puller. The mallet should have a wooden or rubber mallet. It is sometimes needed for operations to fit and align wooden elements. The wooden ruler should have a length within 1.7 m. With it, you can bring individual knots to the same level.
For work, you will definitely need a planer. It is better if you have a conventional and an electric one. At a height, it will be more convenient to work with a conventional tool, while large planes can be more easily processed using an electric model.
You can order a house project with a hip roof from professionals or make it yourself. Roof system installationyou need to start with installing and fixing the Mauerlat. It is located along the perimeter of the bearing walls. Its laying is carried out on waterproofing. Then markup is performed, during which the calculations obtained earlier should be used.
Next, you can start laying the floor beams. They are mounted on the walls next to the Mauerlat or on a beam, below the wall surface. Installation is fixed with puffs, which helps to reduce the load on the load-bearing walls. As soon as the floor beams are laid, they should be covered with plank flooring. Fastening to the beams is not necessary. This flooring will be needed for safe and comfortable work.
With a hip roof, a one-story house will look even more attractive. If you decide to resort to just such a roofing technology, then the next step is to install the racks. They are fixed on floor beams or puffs. The racks are fastened from above with a ridge beam. Rafter central legs are fixed to it. Now you can mark and screw the intermediate rafters from the front slopes.
Next are the diagonal rafters that connect the corners of the building and the ridge. Under them, if necessary, additional racks are installed. The truss scheme of the hip roof should provide for short rafters. They are fixed diagonally. Their installation is carried out with a shutter speed of the same distance, as in the case of intermediate elements. Additionally, you can install struts and trusses, as well as a wind beam, each of which will strengthen or support the system.
If the hip roof rafters end on the Mauerlat, after installation they should be extended with fillies that will form a canopy over the wall. Before proceeding to the next step, you need to mark the window openings and holes through which you will lead the ventilation and chimney pipes. At these points, a frame is formed with slats that are stuffed around the perimeter.
A roofing pie is installed on the hip roof truss system, which provides for a vapor barrier. The film is fixed, and the battens of the crate are screwed on top of it. Between them is thermal insulation, which protects the materials themselves like a plastic film from the wind. Then the counter-lattice is fixed. The next step will depend on which coating material you have chosen. If you decide to purchase a metal tile, then it can be screwed to the rails of the counter-lattice. When choosing a soft roof, OSB sheets or plywood are laid under it.
More on installing supports for diagonal rafters
The scheme of the hip roof truss system may include supports for diagonal elements. If this is a rack, then it is located diagonally on the floor. Between it and the ceiling should be a piece of waterproofing. This is true if the rack rests on a reinforced concrete slab. At an angle that can vary from 45 to 53 ˚, a brace is attached. It is called a strut rafter and is necessaryto maintain the element in the loaded area.
The bottom heel should rest against the bed. The hip roof truss system can be arranged using a sprengel. This is a T-shaped short beam made of timber. It is oriented from bottom to top. This element is used when constructing large spans that require two or more reinforcing supports.
Sprengel is attached so that its base is oriented perpendicular to the rafter. The node is located at the bottom of a large span. Instead of a sprengel, you can use a short stance. The scheme of the hip roof truss system can be mounted using an additional support from a bar or a double board. These nodes are located in the most loaded points.
Depending on the size of the building, different technologies for strengthening the roof can be used. The most popular methods are those that involve nailing studs to floors or roof corners. If the diagonal rafters are too long, then double beams can be used instead of one bar to achieve the result.
The hip roof system can be strengthened by adding a shelf to support the rafters in the center. You can also use a sprengel, which is thrown between the two shoulders of the Mauerlat. When positioning this node away from the corner, for greater reliability, you should install a truss truss.
Recommendations for choosing material forrafter system
When the drawings of the hip roof are drawn up, the material should be selected. The four-slope structure is usually made of coniferous wood, namely pine or larch. The type of wood must be taken carefully - lumber should not contain defects that could adversely affect durability and strength.
When it is decided to build a hip roof with your own hands, the drawings will be the best helpers in this matter. However, they will not guarantee a positive outcome of the case. It is also important to choose the right material. For the rafter system, it is optimal to use a rectangular beam, the cross section of which is 50 x 100 or 50 x 20 mm. If necessary, double boards are installed. Their humidity should not exceed 22%. Otherwise, the material will dry out on its own, and then deform during operation.
The best option for your home can be a hip roof. The truss system can be reinforced with steel elements holding the main nodes. They will keep the relative position unchanged. Supports for the most loaded ridge runs can also be made of metal. If you use a combined design, you can achieve increased strength.
Recommendations for installing a truss system
Mounting is always carried out from the bottom up. The support beams are laid first, which representa Mauerlat. Rafters are subsequently installed on them. This will form the bottom frame, which should extend beyond the walls by 50 cm. The specified limits should not be exceeded, otherwise the project will look inharmonious.
The correct installation should be checked using the building level. If the building has wooden walls, then the support beams will not be needed, because the top crown of the log house will perform the function of the Mauerlat.
Frame rafter legs, which are called diagonals, should come out of each corner of the building. The upper parts, if necessary, can be supported by a system that will consist of racks and braces. The main task will be to unload the rafters. To do this, it is necessary to redistribute the load along the internal walls or supporting pillars. In this way, you will give sufficient rigidity to the entire structure.
Especial attention should be paid to the attachment points of the rafter legs to the Mauerlat. These points will be responsible for the strength of the rafter system. The roof overhang will be adjusted by the length of the diagonal rafters.
In those places where there will be no load-bearing walls, the heels of the rafters should be placed on the longitudinal beams, which are also called side runs. The beam should also be located in the center. It is fixed on three supports, two of which will be located at the ends, and one more in the center. If the roof has an impressive area, then it will be necessary to equip truss trusses. They will take overload from the rafters.
These knots need puffs to be supported. In some cases, they are fixed on the longitudinal and transverse beams. Once the guide rafters are in place, construction of the main frame can begin. Inclined rafters are fixed to the support beams and the ridge run. The distance between them should be 50 cm, but no more. If the gaps are increased, then the truss system will not withstand the loads from snow.
At the final stage, you will need to lay sheets of roofing material, it can be a metal tile, a metal profile or another option. On sloping roofs, the joints should be treated with a frost-resistant moisture-resistant sealant. The size of the overlap during the installation of sheets of these materials will depend on the angle of the roof. The steeper the roof, the less overlap should be. This recommendation also applies to slate.