Materials for repairing the roof of the roof must comply with existing requirements. It is not only about their appearance, but also operational properties. Modern roofing materials must reliably protect the structure from the negative effects of external factors. First of all, from wind, rain, snow and other precipitation. Is there a better roofing material? Let's try to figure it out further.
There are various types of roofing materials on the market today. Coatings are classified according to characteristics. In this regard, when choosing a roofing material, the following must be considered:
- The purpose of the building. Structures can be residential, industrial, economic, household. In accordance with this, coatings with certain properties are selected. For example, a roofing material for a garage roof may not look as attractive as a residential building.
- Estimated dateoperation of the coating and the structure as a whole.
- Compliance of the roofing material with the rest of the roof structure.
- Complexity of installation and subsequent maintenance.
- Compliance with current trends.
- Noise-insulating and heat-saving properties.
Coatings are divided into:
- Having/not having a waterproof surface.
Experts note that absolutely universal and ideal coverage does not exist, as, however, there is no perfect criterion of "ideality". However, the following is important: the roofing material must match the truss system and other elements of the structure and the structure as a whole.
Composition of coatings
According to this indicator, the roofing material of the roof can be:
In a large assortment of materials on the market today, materials of the latter category are presented. In the old days, shingles and straw were the most popular of the organic coverings. Modern roofing materials of this type can last from 5-7 to 25-30 years. These include, in particular, bitumen-polymer, polymer and bituminous coatings. The disadvantage of these coatings is the instability to oxygen and UV rays. Under the influence of these factors, materials wear out quite quickly, some may rot. All organic coatings are combustible. a littlesmaller is the range of mineral (they are also called "stone") materials. Until recently, slate tiles and ceramic tiles were common in this category. Today, more modern coatings have appeared. In particular, these are asbestos-cement sheets (slate) and cement-sand tiles. These materials are more durable than organic ones. Mineral coatings are resistant to UV rays and are less prone to decay. However, at the same time, they do not tolerate temperature changes quite well. Metallic coatings include sheet materials. Copper, zinc, steel are used as raw materials. Galvanization, in comparison with other coatings in this category, is not so durable. Its service life is not more than 50 years. But copper and zinc coatings can last up to 100 years.
Sheet material for roofing roofs can be:
- Metal flat or profiled.
- Bitumen-fibrous (bitumen impregnated synthetic fiber).
- Asbestos-cement (metal tile, ondulin and others).
- Colored polymer (slate).
Material for soft roof roof can be:
- Rolled (glassine, roofing felt and its modifications).
- Film (rubber and polymer membranes).
- Piece (natural slate, tile, soft including).
- Mastics (bitumen and polymer).
However, the presented division can be considered conditional, since,for example, some sheet and piece materials differ only in size.
This roofing material has always been in demand. One of the advantages of the coating is its relatively low cost. Portland cement and short-fiber asbestos are used as part of the slate. The first component contains 85%, the second - 15%. After hardening, a reinforcing mesh of asbestos fiber is formed. It imparts tensile strength and toughness. Slate coating is durable and fire resistant. European analogues of the material are more durable, since they contain metal profile gaskets. Builders note the ease of laying and dismantling slate. For fixing, special screws or nails are used. Soft rubber pads are used to prevent leakage of the coating at the attachment points. One of the significant disadvantages of slate is the possibility of using it only on pitched structures. In addition, under the influence of atmospheric precipitation, microcracks appear on the surface. When water penetrates into them, the damage becomes greater, which leads to the destruction of the coating. To increase the service life and improve the decorative properties, slate sheets are coated with pigment compositions during production. As a result, a protective layer is formed on the surface. Thanks to him, slate lasts one and a half times longer, and the release of asbestos into the atmosphere is less intensive.
Fiber Bitumen Sheet
This house roof roofing material has morethe name is "Euroslate". It is an analogue of the coating described above. Euroslate belongs to the category of modern materials. In Russia, the common name for this coating is ondulin (according to a popular brand). The shape of the sheets is similar to slate. A distinctive feature of ondulin is its ease of processing and higher strength. The cover is light weight. This allows you to lay it on the roof without removing the old material and without reinforcing the truss system. Euroslate sheets are able to withstand gusts of wind and a load of snow. Another analogue is a coating, in the manufacture of which a homogeneous polymer is used. By production the method of extrusion is used. Also in the manufacturing process, the sheets are corrugated. The advantages of this coating are strength, light weight, fire resistance, resistance to acid and alkaline environments, environmental friendliness, a variety of shades and durability. However, such material can be laid on a roof with a slope of at least 15%.
Today, the material for soft roofing is very popular. In the manufacture of cardboard or other non-rotten raw materials are used. In particular, fiberglass, polyester or fiberglass are used in the production. They are covered either with pure bitumen or mixed with polymer. These covers are categorized as:
- SBS-modified. They contain at least 10-12% of the polymer component. Such coatings are highly elastic even at low temperatures.
- APP-modified. They containfrom 25% polymer component. Such coatings are highly heat resistant.
Materials from the second category are used mainly in areas with a hot climate, from the first - in the weather conditions of Russia.
Simple bituminous roll coatings
These include various types of roofing material, which are based on cardboard, metalloizol, foilizol and others. Such coatings are used in the construction of hydro- and vapor barriers. Pitched and flat roofs are covered with roofing and lining roofing material. One of the significant drawbacks of such coatings should be considered their short service life - no more than five years. Roll materials are highly sensitive to atmospheric phenomena. They do not tolerate temperature extremes, UV rays and precipitation. Many seek to save money and purchase such coverage. However, later such initial cheapness will result in significant financial costs. The materials that contain a foil layer are of better quality: metalloizol and foilizol.
When arranging the upper and lower roofing layers, as well as when laying waterproofing, roll materials based on fiberglass, polyester or fiberglass are used. Among them, for example, it is worth noting rubestek, bikrost, linocrom, rubemast, glass bit. As a rule, they are used on flat and pitched structures (with a slope of up to 25%). If the slope is greater, then at high temperatures the material may slide off the roof. Formastic is used to fix the coatings. Another disadvantage is the need for multi-layer installation using gravel and stone chips. In general, the service life of the coating is about 15 years.
This category includes tiles, translucent and metal materials for roofing (a photo of some examples can be seen in the article). Such coatings are mainly laid on attic and hip structures with a large slope. Common materials in this category include ceramic tiles, shingles and slate slates. The latter is distinguished by its durability and high decorative qualities. The shingle is a wooden plank with grooves and a wedge-shaped cross section. They are laid in several layers. Ceramic tiles are considered quite "ancient" coating. This material is distinguished by environmental friendliness, durability (service life is more than a hundred years), as well as high quality characteristics. Today, three types of tiles are used in construction:
- Grooved. In this case, the laying of the upper and lower rows is carried out on opposite sides. The result is a grooved effect.
- Groove. Such a coating is laid in the form of a "shell". To fix the elements to each other, a lock connection is used.
- Flat. It is also called "beaver tail". During installation, the upper element covers the joint between the two lower ones.
There is also a cement-sandtiles. In its manufacture, quartz sand, iron oxide pigments and Portland cement are used. This coating does not fade in direct sunlight, has high strength and long service life. In addition, the material is fireproof, has good sound insulation and low thermal conductivity. It is better to lay the coating on a pitched roof. Installation can be done by hand without involving a team of specialists.
Today this material is the most common. The advantages of metal coating include hygiene, high strength, fire resistance and low weight. Among the minuses, it is worth noting the susceptibility to corrosion, good heat and sound conductivity. In the manufacture of the material, both sheet and piece raw materials are used: steel, duralumin, copper and gilded plates, stamped metal tiles. For the installation of the coating, it is necessary to involve specialists. The most popular today are galvanized and iron sheets. They are covered with a special protective layer of an alloy of copper, titanium and zinc, which prevents corrosion.