And now this long-awaited moment has come when, contrary to popular belief about the infinity of repairs, all the work is completed: the wallpaper is glued, the tiles are laid, the windows shine with the virgin whiteness of the slopes. It is not a sin to celebrate such an event in the circle of friends and neighbors who breathed a sigh of relief (unwitting accomplices of your labor feat). It is difficult to convey the whole gamut of feelings that have covered you when a meticulous godfather suddenly discovers young shoots of the “money tree” under a brand new window sill in the form of a greening strip of mold. And it is monetary because you are already mentally calculating how much it will cost you to restore your former beauty. Everything is in order, this is just a nightmare, but if you do not want it to become a reality, then, having started a construction or repair, you need to take care of high-quality waterproofing even before the finishing stage.
Waterproofing: why is it needed?
Today, the building materials market is able to offer a lot of solutions to ensure effective insulation from almost anyundesirable consequences of exposure to moisture, whether it be precipitation, groundwater, condensate or emergency situations caused by a break in communications. Here it is important, first of all, to correctly determine the choice of the type of protective materials, since each of them has its own priority performance characteristics, and secondly, it is necessary to strictly follow the manufacturer's recommendations during the work. Two priority types of insulating coating can be noted - these are pasting and coating waterproofing.
Pasting type of waterproofing
The first option is a waterproofing material in the form of sheets (for example, bituminous tiles), rolls (euroroofing material) or extruded polystyrene foam boards installed on the protected area, hot soldered or cold applied with bitumen-based mastic or, in the case of polystyrene slabs, using a special building adhesive.
Due to the ease of installation, gluing waterproofing is effective in organizing moisture protection over large areas (roof slopes, ceilings, walls, foundations), which, however, implies increased requirements for evenness and integrity of the surface. Also, there is always a risk of leakage at the joints and in places where the protective material adheres to other planes.
Sealing surfaces with coating insulation
Coating waterproofing, made on the basis of liquid mastics and sludge, is deprived of such shortcomings. As the name implies, this type of protection impliesits application in the form of a continuous layer, which, after hardening, forms a seamless, absolutely hermetic layer, reliably isolating the surface to be coated, including all irregularities and junctions with other building elements. In addition to moisture resistance, the applied coating is able to resist mechanical damage and chemically active environments for a long time, while possessing high plasticity, which prevents cracking under the influence of temperature changes and uneven shrinkage of the coated surface. Consider the most popular coatings used as coating waterproofing.
Plaster waterproof insulation
Mineral mixtures are produced using high-grade Portland cements (white or gray) with the addition of granulate and polymer additives, this type of insulation is also called plaster waterproofing. It is sold in the form of a fine powder mixed with water in the required proportions. Such cement coating waterproofing is able to withstand pressure up to seven atmospheres, due to which it is widely used for sealing swimming pools, as well as for protecting basements from moisture in case of a threat of groundwater flooding.
The use of plaster waterproofing is also justified when, in addition to moisture protection, it is required to level the insulated area. The solution is applied in layers, with a coating thickness of five to forty millimeters.
Such waterproofing is applied to brick, metal orconcrete base from the side of probable hydrostatic action.
Asph alt plaster
Often there is such a definition as asph alt plaster, which is a bituminous coating in the form of cold or hot mastics, applied in two or three layers, each 4 mm thick. To protect against mechanical damage, such waterproofing, when applied to a vertical surface, is sewn up with brick or concrete. If it is used as a coating waterproofing of the floor, then it is limited to 2 layers about 8 mm thick, subsequently closed with a concrete screed.
Cast asph alt plaster is a hot bituminous mastic, in case of vertical protection, poured into the space between the outer protective wall and the waterproofing surface, and in the horizontal plane - evenly distributed over the surface. After drying, it is closed with a screed of sand-cement mortar.
The types of moisture protection described above are excellent for organizing coating waterproofing of a foundation located in a zone of dangerous proximity to groundwater. In this case, the upper limit of the treated surface must be at least half a meter above the level of hydrostatic action.
Examples of liquid waterproofing
From liquid moisture-proof coatings, first of all, it is worth mentioning bituminous coating waterproofing, which combines ease of application, reliable protection and affordable price, however, a serious drawback of the material is its high toxicity, therefore they are usedsuch a coating is mainly for outdoor work or in non-residential premises.
For interior work, two-component mixtures based on polyurethane are most often used, which are practically odorless, and the most toxic component in them is the price. In this case, the consumption of coating waterproofing is determined by the requirements for the level of protection, and depends on the number of applied layers of insulating material. As a rule, one area is covered from 2 to 4 times, sequentially, waiting for the previously applied layer to completely dry.
Methods for applying cold and hot coating mastics
Coating waterproofing, applied with a paint brush or roller, is often called paint. This type of coating, when dried, forms a thin film impervious to water, obtained as a result of hardening of paint and varnish compositions or mastic with a bituminous, acrylic, silicone, rubber and polyurethane base using asbestos, lime and other additives, which provides a high degree of capillary protection of the coating from moisture.. There are hot and cold mastics. In the first version, the insulating material is heated to 170 °C, after which it can be easily and efficiently applied to the treated area using a paint brush and roller. Cold mastic made of perchlorovinyl, epoxy and other artificial resins can be applied already at +5 ° C, but it costs a little more. Before applying waterproofing, the surface to be insulated is primed with a weak solution of the same mastic, diluting it one to threegasoline or white spirit.
A flame spraying option is also possible, while the coating is applied at least twice with a drying break of about 15 hours and a bitumen layer thickness of about two millimeters.
Benefits of penetrating waterproofing
Another very effective way to protect building elements from moisture is penetrating waterproofing, which is used for materials with a porous structure (for example, concrete). This liquid solution, passing deep into the surface to be treated, can be used both at the start and at the end of repair and finishing work. Its use is allowed even during the operation of building structures, allowing, in addition to restoring moisture-proof characteristics, to protect the reinforcing base from corrosion.
Elements treated with a penetrating waterproofing type increase strength by about 20%, improve frost resistance, and there is no need to prime, level, create additional protection or reinforce the surface to be protected.
Pros of sprayed waterproofing
In recent years, more and more adherents are finding, yet outlandish, but very promising sprayed waterproofing based on acrylic, polyurethane resins or, already familiar to us, the bituminous component. It is applied to any area using a paint sprayer or a special spraying device, providing perfect sealing and high coating strength with a claimed service life of up tofifty years old. Depending on the thickness, the period of hardening of one layer is from 10 to 20 hours.
Sprayed waterproofing is available in different colors, is resistant to temperature fluctuations, has high wear resistance and provides excellent sound insulation.
The bathroom as a testing ground for all types of waterproofing
One of the main places in need of high-quality protection against moisture is the bathroom. High humidity, hot steam and condensate from temperature differences - all these factors create a specific indoor climate. Almost all of the above types of surface sealing are applicable as coating waterproofing for a bathroom, with the exception, perhaps, of pure bituminous mastic and asph alt plasters due to their high toxicity. It is recommended to carefully treat all concrete and other porous elements of the room with penetrating waterproofing, including floors, walls and ceilings at the initial stage of repair.
This also applies to places where ceramic tiles will be laid, because moisture, through the seams, can seep inward, accumulating in the voids and porous structure of the adhesive. Coating waterproofing under the tile is applied on a flat, dry surface, it is especially necessary to carefully process the joints, which it is desirable to glue with a special waterproofing tape, covering it with a layer of protective solution. During the drying period of the protective coating (up to three days), it is worth avoidinguse of the premises to avoid compromising the integrity of the waterproofing.
Sealing works do not require special professionalism, and the waterproofing materials used are relatively affordable, but the waterproofing process itself is quite laborious, requiring accuracy and time. But you must admit that many years spent in the dry and cozy walls of your home are worth the effort.