Lighting the trading floor: types, installation procedure, norms

Lighting the trading floor: types, installation procedure, norms
Lighting the trading floor: types, installation procedure, norms
Anonim

Lighting retail space is one of the key components in creating a favorable image of the store. Properly organized light concentrates attention on shop windows, stimulating customers to make purchases and simply creating a pleasant atmosphere. But for this, a wide group of factors and nuances should be taken into account even at the stage of designing the lighting of the trading floor.

Artificial and natural lighting

It's worth starting with a basic separation of approaches to organizing lighting. Natural light involves the creation of conditions for the admission of sunlight into the hall, and artificial light is formed by technical devices and provides the main amount of radiation. With all the advantages of the second concept, natural lighting of the trading floor is mandatory and is classified into top, side and combined. In the design solution, the target site should be divided into sections with side lighting - these are zones adjacent towalls with windows. The calculation of natural light coefficients should be made without taking into account shading objects, which can be furniture, equipment, plants, etc.

Shopping mall lighting

As for artificial light, it is created by means of electric (mainly) lamps. According to the general rules, discharge sources of this type should be selected taking into account comfort for the eyes, energy efficiency and functionality. It is desirable that artificial lighting in sales areas should also be divided in terms of functionality. This will be discussed below.

General lighting

It is erroneously considered that the main light should create a certain backlight background, already within which directional lighting is organized. In fact, devices with this function should perform several tasks at once, providing comfortable conditions for employees and visitors to stay in the premises and highlighting specific areas with product displays or showcases.

Basically, the general light is organized by ceiling fixtures distributed throughout the area. It is the different configurations of luminaire placement that make it possible to create the necessary functional and decorative accents. Another thing is that directivity and spot lighting for general lighting of the trading floor is a secondary task.

It is also worth emphasizing that within the same hall there may be zones with different purposes, so wall installation at separate points is also possible. For example, cashterminals can also be illuminated by adjustable devices on special racks. Hanging devices are also often used, which can be adjusted in height for convenience.

Exposure lighting

The same directional light that modern department stores, supermarkets and boutiques cannot do without. The essence of this type of lighting is the point selection of a specific area or object to attract attention. This task is carried out in different ways. If the emphasis is on the maximum optimization of the dimensions of the fixtures, then LED lighting is organized. In trading floors, built-in compact devices based on diode crystals are often used, which are almost invisible from the outside, but in terms of radiation power they are not inferior to standard halogen and fluorescent lamps. And vice versa, the massive housings of pendant spotlights can perform both the function of spot lighting and act as an element of the design of the hall.

Shop floor lighting with spotlights

Separately, it is worth talking about the placement of devices that emit exposure light. Above we talked about ceiling installation options, but bottom (floor) and wall lighting of this type is also allowed and even welcomed. The more diverse the direction of the light supply and the more contrast it is, the more attractive the display with the goods. However, it is also not worth oversaturating the room with lamps, since excessive contrast with bright photon streams can tire visitors. An alternative solution would be soft and delicate lighting in retail stores.halls, arranged on racks and shelves. In this case, we are talking about very miniature devices with a small coverage area, but with pronounced light accents.

Features of lighting in different stores

It is impossible to get the most profitable lighting without taking into account the specifics of the products sold, so individual accents are made in each case. Here are some recommendations for lighting retail spaces for various purposes:

  • Grocery stores. It is important to strike a balance between the supply of directional and general light in individual areas of the store, maintaining uniformity. The emphasis is on even flood light.
  • Electronics and home appliances stores. Metal cases are favorably combined with cold lighting, and for branded departments it is better to rely on accentuated streams. Electronics departments often use color backlighting to highlight products from different segments or price levels.
  • Car dealerships. Showrooms are large and require powerful spotlights and fluorescent ceiling lights. The lighting of the trading floor in this case focuses on aesthetics and functionality at the same time.
  • Building stores. We are also talking about large areas where equipment and massive structures can be placed. The light output should be abundant, even and high to completely cover the space with a good view.
Automotive showroom lighting

Types of lamps for lighting commercial premises

Used practicallyall traditional types of lamps, but first of all - halogen, fluorescent and energy-saving. The only exceptions are devices with incandescent filaments due to impracticality, low working life and modest power indicators. However, such lamps are still considered optimal in terms of comfortable perception by the eye, so this option should not be completely ruled out.

In general, the main competition is between fluorescent and halogen devices. When it comes to general lighting of the trading floor, the lamps of the first group will be the best solution in terms of price and performance. Halogen and modern metal halide are more often used in accent lighting. That is, it is advisable to organize combined systems.

Next, attention is drawn to the working qualities of the lamps, the main of which will be brightness. The ratio of accent and general lighting in the complex should form a sufficient level of saturation, not exceeding 3200 lux. And then, this value applies only to large areas of more than 2 thousand m2. In passage areas, the brightness should be 200-250 lux, and in front of shop windows and in accent lighting - from 400 to 1000 lux. As for warmth, much depends on the direction of the store itself, since this color is also a stylistic touch. But for comfortable perception by the eye, the optimal range varies from 2700 to 3200 K.

LED showroom lighting

LED lighting of the trading floor

High-tech LED-lamps today are actively used in public spaces. Their use justifies itself both in terms of the structural device, as already mentioned in relation to the organization of spot lighting, and in terms of functionality and energy efficiency.

There are practically no restrictions on the implementation of the structural form factor for LED fixtures. Diodes are placed both in small built-in lamps and in large lighting panels, which literally flood huge spaces with photons. At the same time, unlike luminescent ceiling models, LED lighting for salesrooms is cheaper in terms of electricity costs with the same working effect. Another thing is that the LEDs themselves are sometimes several times more expensive.

More importantly, manufacturers of this type of lighting are increasingly willing to segment them into application categories. There are highly specialized models for specific tasks - up to the coverage of a certain group of goods, if we talk about the use in trading floors. The tight combination of LED-devices with goods is also free from the risk of ignition, which is also important. Due to the low degree of heat generation, such devices are safe for flammable products and in this characteristic they have no alternative today.

Norms for the design of artificial lighting in salesrooms

During the development of the project, a detailed analysis of several parameters of the organization of the lighting system is carried out in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 23-05-95. In particular, the scheme is definedlocation of lighting devices, their performance characteristics, body materials, dimensions, etc.

The main design standards for artificial lighting in sales areas include the following:

  • Emissivity from the general lighting system must be at least 70%.
  • When choosing lamps, you should focus on discharge economical devices, the working efficiency of which is at least 55 lm / W.
  • In rooms where it is planned to provide cylindrical illumination, the reflection coefficient should be at least 40-50%, depending on the position of the surface (wall or ceiling).
  • Emergency and evacuation lighting devices should be installed in the hall.
Ceiling lighting of the sales area

Wiring

For the power supply of the shopping center, a dedicated wiring route should be organized. A power cable is already being led from it to the technical room of the facility. Next, a switchboard is installed, including the following elements:

  • Differential circuit breakers.
  • Switchgear for short-circuit protection.
  • Tires for grounding electrical receivers.
  • Emergency stop devices.
  • Electricity meters.

From the shield, in accordance with the standards for lighting trading floors, a grounding system of the TN-C-S type is mounted, which provides a deaf grounding of the neutral of the supply transformer. Laying along the contours leadingto the points of location of the fixtures, is carried out using the VVGng cable. The line can be run closed (for example, in a ceiling niche) or open, but in a corrugated PVC tube. Cables are fixed by means of plastic clips - this solution is more aesthetically pleasing and also makes it convenient to install several parallel lines.

Installation of supporting structure for luminaires

Spot lighting of the sales area

In order not to spoil the appearance of the interior of the trading floor, a special base is pre-mounted for the lamps - a busbar. Such designs make it possible to conveniently fix the bodies of lamps for various purposes, including track systems. The basis of this element is a metal profile. It is fixed with anchors or self-tapping screws to the walls or ceiling, and some modifications can be hung on special load-bearing frames. The inside of the busbar has built-in copper conductors with insulation materials and connectors to which the connection is made. Installation of a sales area lighting system with a busbar is carried out in the following sequence:

  • The installation points are being marked.
  • The extreme holes of the fasteners must be at least 10 cm from the edge of the structure. The gaps between the fasteners are at least 80 cm, and the fixtures are located with a minimum indent from each other of 20 cm.
  • Prepared wiring from the shield is connected to the lighting points.
  • Connecting the busbar trunking to the network via the incoming power linethrough connectors.
  • Light fixtures are installed in the busbar connectors.

Installation of spotlights

Accent lighting of the sales area

Ceiling LED fixtures are used for camouflage or discreet lighting. In principle, the implementation of such an installation is only possible if the ceiling structure has a free rear niche and the decorative panel can be cut. For example, this applies to plasterboard ceilings, in which holes are pre-formed with a diameter corresponding to the luminaire body. Spot lighting of the trading floor of the store in the ceiling is also possible in cases of using Armstrong-type structures. LED panels can also be integrated into them. The placement of single LED-devices for directional light can be performed if appropriate holes are technologically provided in such a ceiling. In both versions, power wires from the shield are released through the prepared opening. Terminal blocks are attached to them, to which the LED lamp will be connected. At the final stage, it remains only to place the body of the device with spacers or other clamping devices in the hole, which will hold the lamp in the ceiling niche.

Conclusion

Sales floor lighting

Feature of the lighting device for stores is the versatility of the equipment. It is important that the system meets stringent safety, functionality, ergonomics and design requirements.attractiveness. In this sense, a lot will depend on the selected fixtures for lighting sales areas and adjacent areas. And the modern range of lighting technology makes it possible to solve such problems, while remaining within a moderate range of energy consumption. While shopping mall owners are paying more and more attention to LED solutions, more conventional lamps remain in demand due to their individual characteristics, which should be evaluated based on specific lighting requirements.

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