Growing grapes and caring for them in the open field largely depends on weather conditions. And if the summer turned out to be too dry or rainy, as well as with frequent hail and strong winds, then you will not wait for a good harvest of berries. In order not to depend on the vicissitudes of the weather, cultivate the plant in a greenhouse. And this material will tell you about the basic rules for such growing grapes for beginners.
Growing grapes in Russia in a greenhouse way is carried out not only in regions with difficult climatic conditions, but also in the Caucasus and in the southern regions. After all, installing a shelter for culture is an effective way to avoid the vicissitudes of the weather: showers, hail, gusts of wind, cold summers. In addition, the method of growing grapes in a greenhouse has other advantages:
- Vine under cover is easier to care for;
- the quality of the berries is not worse than those that grow in the open field;
- grapes do not crack because raindrops do not fall on them;
- under shelter, plants are more protected from birds, diseases and pests, so such crops need less chemical treatment;
- in the greenhouse the vine is protected from frost and hard frost in winter;
- berries ripen much faster, which makes it possible to get high profits from an early harvest.
In addition, strawberries, onions, garlic, herbs and other early ripening crops can be planted between rows. And their sale will quickly pay off the costs of building a greenhouse and purchasing equipment.
How to choose a greenhouse?
It is most convenient to grow grapes in an arched polycarbonate greenhouse. They are suitable for year-round use. In addition, supporting structures and ventilation vents are installed in them. You can buy such a greenhouse in specialized stores, and detailed instructions for assembly and operation are attached to each of them. Some manufacturers even offer assembly services for such a room.
Ready polycarbonate greenhouses are very expensive. Therefore, if you want to save money, you can build such a shelter yourself from improvised means. But keep in mind that it should be at least 5 meters wide and 2.5-3 meters high.
Install the greenhouse on a capital strip foundation. Make the frame from a metal profile orpipes, and use polycarbonate for coating. If you live in regions with little snow and a warm climate, you can cover the greenhouse with a durable multi-year film in 1-2 layers.
In any case, position the greenhouse in a north-south direction. Then the vine will receive maximum light. To protect the grapes from scalding, stretch the support wire system indoors at intervals of 20-30 cm. Place the top protection at a distance of 35 cm from the ridge and ceiling of the structure.
For growing grapes in a greenhouse, it is important to create the right conditions. These are heat, light and optimal air humidity. The following equipment will help you with this:
- Drip irrigation system. Thanks to this device, you will ensure the optimal level of watering the soil for the crop. In addition, you will be able to supply the vine with nutrients. To do this, soluble components are mixed with irrigation water, so that they evenly flow to each plant.
- Heating. Infrared heaters that can be dug into the ground or hung on the wall will help ensure the optimum temperature. Some gardeners connect the greenhouse to the steam heating of the house. But this method is suitable for those who have the opportunity.
- Ventilation. End doors allow high-quality ventilation of greenhouses with a length of no more than 4-5 meters. If you have a longer room, then install side windows in the longitudinal walls. Better yet, purchase special automatic ventilationdevices.
Such devices and devices are very expensive. Nevertheless, they greatly facilitate the care of the vine. Plus, they pay for themselves in 4-5 years, so don't skimp on installing them.
Growing in a greenhouse is not suitable for all crop varieties. The following varieties perform best under cover:
- "Bulgaria is sustainable". This early amber-yellow grape bears excellent fruit and ripens in 115–120 days. It is disease resistant and does not require chemical pollination.
- "Song". An early yellow-green variety matures in 105–110 days. Valued for large clusters and sugary sweetness of berries, nutmeg aftertaste.
- "Laura." The variety is valued for its high yield, juiciness of berries and nutmeg flavor. With proper care, the bunch reaches a weight of 2-2.5 kg. Ripens in 105-110 days.
- "Arcadia". Yellow-green table grapes are valued for their unpretentious nature, sweetness and juiciness of the berries, as well as the large size of the bunches. Ripens at 110–115 days.
- "Michurinskiy". Table blue grapes are valued for their pleasant aroma, sweetness and nutmeg aftertaste. Ripens in 120-125 days. Clusters of medium size reach a weight of 200–300 g.
But the popular varieties "December" or "delight" are not recommended to be planted in a greenhouse. These varieties feel better in open ground conditions, and under cover their yields are much higher.declining.
Preparing for landing
If your site is close to groundwater, be sure to make drainage ditches around the structure. Before planting, dig trenches for grapes 1 meter deep and 35-35 cm wide. Keep a distance of 1-1.5 meters between each hole.
Prepare a suitable substrate. To do this, mix in equal amounts:
- garden soil;
Add 45 grams of crushed chalk and mineral fertilizers to each bucket of the mixture. Fill the prepared trenches with the resulting soil at half the depth, that is, 0.5 meters.
Step back 40–50 cm from the side walls, stretch horizontal trellises made of strong wire. Install such structures between rows at a distance of 30 cm. They are necessary for the formation of crop bushes.
It is better to plant a vine at the end of February, but if you want to save on heating and lighting the greenhouse, you can start work a little later. How to land:
- Place the seedling vertically in the center and straighten its roots.
- Keep a distance of 50-65 cm between each plant.
- The distance between seedlings and walls should be 70–75 cm.
Finish the voids with prepared soil, lightly tamp the soil and water generously.
Vine growing technology
In the greenhouse, it is important to maintain optimal temperature conditions at different stages of the growing seasonCultures:
- During the dormant period from January to April, the temperature under the shelter should fluctuate between 0 and +5 °C.
- In February, when the plant starts growing, if you have a heated greenhouse and want an early harvest, raise the temperature to +8 °C.
- When buds open, maintain a range of 10-14°C during the day and 8-10°C at night.
- During flowering, the temperature should be 24-26 °C during the daytime. At night, it should be lowered to 10-14 ° C.
- When berries ripen, keep the temperature between 28-30°C during the day and 18-20°C at night.
Technology for growing grapes in a greenhouse also includes regular irrigation and top dressing, pruning of the vine and preparing the plant for winter. You will learn more about all these rules in the following chapters of the material.
Regular and proper irrigation is the key to a bountiful harvest. When growing grapes in a greenhouse, water young bushes every 6-7 days. During flowering and during the formation of berries, stop irrigation, as excessive moisture at this moment leads to cracking of the grapes and a decrease in yield.
For watering, use warm, sun-warmed water. Irrigate in the morning and never wet the soil in the evening.
The main feature of growing grapes in a greenhouse is manual pollination of the crop. After all, under the shelter of a bee, insects rarely fly. In order for the buds to receive pollen and later bear fruit, duringflowering, strike the vine sharply daily. Hold this event in the afternoon.
If you grow varieties with a female type of flowers, then gently tap the buds with your palm so that the pollen collects on your hand. And also you can use a fur puff. Then transfer it to the pistils. You can clearly learn how to perform pollination from the following video.
For a bountiful harvest, fertilize grapes four times a season:
- In the spring during the growing season, make a groove around each plant and apply 40 g of superphosphate, 50 g of nitrogen and 30 g of potash fertilizers.
- Dilute a bucket of slurry with water in a ratio of 1 to 2. Leave this solution for 10 days in a closed barrel for fermentation. Dilute the finished product with water in a ratio of 1 to 6 and pour it over each bush two weeks before flowering.
- When the berries grow to the size of a pea, dilute 20 g of potash fertilizers and 10 g of superphosphate in a bucket of water. Pour this liquid over each plant.
- During the ripening of the berries, mix 50 g of potash and phosphorus fertilizers in a bucket of water and feed each plant with this liquid.
With this fertilization scheme, you will achieve a 2-fold increase in yield. In addition, the berries will acquire a chic appearance and extraordinary sweetness.
After planting seedlings, pinch. To do this, cut off weak shoots so that the plant does not waste energy on their development.As the culture grows, remove inflorescences with immature buds. If some stems turn out to be fruitless, then cut them to the level of the 5th leaf. Shorten the shoots of the second order to the first leaf.
Each fall, prune long shoots to the level of the initial bud. And also shorten all stems by two-thirds of the length.
To make the plant calmly endure even severe frosts, prepare it for adverse conditions. To do this, in the fall before the cold snap, remove the vine from the trellis and bend it to the ground. Be sure to secure the plants with arcs.
Cover the top of the cults with insulation, for example, old blankets, reed mats, spruce branches. Tighten everything with a film and dig the structure with a 30-centimeter layer of soil. At the same time, make sure that the polyethylene does not come into contact with the kidneys, as this will provoke dampening.
Remember that in a greenhouse the main enemy of the vine is not frost, but excess moisture and a sharp fluctuation in temperature. Therefore, during a warm winter, do not forget to regularly ventilate the room.
To protect young shoots from frost, use car tires. To do this, bury one tire near the roots, and install the second on top. Place flexible shoots inside the tire, then cover the structure with a film. Make a few holes in it for ventilation and sprinkle with soil. If you remove the roof from the greenhouse, be sure to protect the vine from excess moisture. To do this, place a sheet of slate or a piece of roofing material on top of the structure.
Careand growing grapes in greenhouse conditions is not as difficult as it seems. It is enough to provide the culture with comfortable conditions, and it will certainly thank you with a harvest of tasty and he althy berries. All installation costs of this design will quickly pay off.