Building panels: types, characteristics, purpose

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Building panels: types, characteristics, purpose
Building panels: types, characteristics, purpose

Construction panels are an excellent solution in cases where you need to install quickly and effortlessly. The variety of colors that is currently offered on the construction market is able to satisfy the requirements of even the most capricious customers.

It is precisely because of the ease of installation and reasonable cost that various building panels are currently actively used. Let us dwell on the characteristics of these decorative materials.

panel house projects


Building panels are produced in several variations:

  • type-setting rack structures;

  • slab panels;

  • wall sheet materials.

When choosing the type of such materials, it is necessary to pay attention to the size of the structure, lighting, taste preferences of the owner.

Rack panels

They are planks, lengthwhich averages from 2400 to 3700 mm, width from 125 to 300 mm, thickness ranges from 8-12 mm. They are ideal for small spaces. To carry out the installation of such panels, a wooden or metal crate is first made. The fixation of individual elements with each other is carried out thanks to the spikes and grooves (locking mechanisms). The material is attached to the crate using self-tapping screws. Such panels are made from MDF, PVC, fiberboard, chipboard.

features of building materials

Tile panels

They are squares with dimensions of 30 by 30 (or 98 by 98 cm), so they are convenient for creating original drawings, combinations in color, texture.

They are fixed to the wall with the help of clamps or special glue, as well as by means of a locking mechanism. These construction panels are made from fiberboard, chipboard, MDF, PVC.

Wall sheet panels

Such materials are large in size: from 1.22 to 2.44 meters. Three-layer building panels can be selected with imitation of tiles, wood, stone. The installation of materials is carried out with the help of glue, then the seams are carefully hidden under the moldings.

Make panels from fiberboard, impregnating it with special resins.

In addition to the decorative materials listed above, structural panels are also used in construction to create partitions and internal walls in the room:

  • sandwich panels for the construction of modular buildings;

  • concrete panels.

facade panels for exterior decoration


Manufacturers offer facade panels for exterior decoration from synthetic components that are not inferior in aesthetics and performance to natural counterparts. Let's analyze the distinctive features of some of them so that you can make the right choice.

An excellent option for outdoor decoration - PVC facade panels. They are made of soft plastic, which has a cellular character. Only 3% of such materials is polymer, the rest of the space is occupied by air. For fastening such products, the “comb-groove” system, included in the kit, is used. Such products are suitable for the basement finishing of the house with siding.


Let's highlight the main advantages of vinyl panels for PVC facade:

  • high humidity resistance;

  • long service life;

  • frost resistance;

  • easy to install;

  • sustainable;

  • fair price;

  • wide range of colors and textures.

In addition to the advantages, plastic vinyl panels have certain disadvantages. They are not resistant to elevated temperatures, and when burned, they release toxic gaseous compounds into the atmosphere. Also among the disadvantages of PVC panels, we highlight their fragility. Such materials are hollow inside, so their shape is maintained only with the help of stiffeners. Any carving movement leads to the appearance in themholes.


What are these construction panels? The dimensions of the products can vary from 0.5 to 2.5 m. Such decorative materials are made of aluminum or galvanized steel. Depending on the drawing of the house, you can choose perforated or smooth panels. Installation is carried out with screws or nails. What are the distinctive features of metal panels for facades? They are easy to install, their operating temperature range is -50…+50 °C. The materials are characterized by a long service life (about 30 years), excellent sound insulation coefficient (about 20 dB), resistance to aggressive chemical compounds, bending strength.

Among the few disadvantages of such finishing materials, we note:

  • minor thermal insulation properties;

  • high cost.

If the plans include the use of such materials to decorate the facade of the building, in this case, you will additionally have to take care of its insulation.

construction panels with honeycomb core

Fiber cement

Panel house projects often involve the use of Japanese facades. Such materials consist of cement and various impurities. One part is fiberglass or plastic, cellulose, and nine parts are cement. Fibers are randomly arranged within the material, giving the panels flexural strength.

Among the benefits of such panels:

  • substantial service life;

  • resistance totemperature fluctuations;

  • environmental safety;

  • UV and atmospheric corrosion resistance;

  • affordable value;

  • excellent thermal insulation performance;

  • wide range of textures and colors;

  • flammability.

Among the shortcomings of Japanese facade panels, it is necessary to highlight the instability to mechanical damage, low impact resistance, and moisture absorption (additional painting is required).

building panels dimensions

Wood fiber materials

They consist of natural wood, which was first split into fibers, and then pressed at high temperature and pressure. A special paint, veneer or polymer material is applied to the panel. In appearance, they are identical to natural wood. Builders choose such finishing materials because of ease of installation, excellent bending strength, affordable cost, and good thermal insulation characteristics. The only disadvantage of such panels is their instability to high temperatures.

options for building panels for a residential building


Why are building panels with honeycomb core used in modern construction? They favorably differ from other finishing materials in strength and rigidity. The carrier layers, which are reinforced with aggregate, withstand high compressive stresses, clearly exceeding the elastic limit of the usedmaterial. When installing such panels, fewer supporting elements will be required, which will significantly speed up the construction process.

The construction consists of their outer thin layers made of durable materials, which are interconnected by filler by soldering, welding, gluing. Such panels are used in block construction, as the products are resistant to corrosion, have excellent aesthetic and operational characteristics.

High stability allows thin load-bearing skins to be used, contributing to overall weight savings. At the same time, three-layer panels give the building excellent electrical, sound, and thermal insulation properties. Among the advantages of such products, it is necessary to note their reasonable cost, as well as external aesthetics.

That is why more and more often builders choose multilayer panels for external facades, significantly reducing the load on the foundation of a residential building or office building under construction.

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