Homemade engine: purpose, device and principle of operation. How to make an engine

Homemade engine: purpose, device and principle of operation. How to make an engine
Homemade engine: purpose, device and principle of operation. How to make an engine

Homemade engine can be made in several ways. Let's start the review with the bipolar or stepper version, which is a double pole electric motor without brushes. It has DC power, divides a full turn into equal parts. For the operation of this device, a special controller is required. In addition, the design of the device includes a winding, magnetic elements, transmitters, signaling devices and a control unit with a dashboard. The main purpose of the unit is the arrangement of milling and grinding machines, as well as ensuring the operation of various household, industrial and transport mechanisms.

homemade engine

Motor types

Homemade engine can have several configurations. Among them:

  • Options with permanent magnet.
  • Combined synchronous model.
  • Variable motor.

Permanent magnet drive is equipped with the main element in the rotor part. The functioning of such devices is based on the principle of attraction or repulsion between the stator and the rotor of the device. Such a stepper motor is equipped with a rotor partfrom iron. The principle of its operation is based on a fundamental basis, according to which, the maximum permissible repulsion is carried out with a minimum clearance. This contributes to the attraction of the rotor points to the stator poles. Combined devices combine both options.

Another option is two-phase stepper motors. The device is a simple structure, it can have two types of winding, it is easy to install in the required place.

Monopolar modifications

A self-made motor of this type consists of a single winding and a central magnetic valve that affects all phases. Each winding compartment is activated to provide a specific magnetic field. Since in such a circuit the pole is able to function without additional switching, switching the path and direction of the current has an elementary device. For a standard motor with an average power, one transistor is enough, provided in the equipment of each winding. A typical two-phase motor circuit has six wires on the output signal and three similar elements on the phase.

how to make an engine

The machine's microcontroller can be used to activate the transistor in an automatically determined sequence. In this case, the windings are connected by connecting the output wires and a permanent magnet. When the coil terminals interact, the shaft is blocked for turning. The resistance between the common wire and the end of the coil is proportional to the same aspect between the ends of the wiring. For this reason, the lengththe common wire is twice as large as the connecting half of the coil.

Bipolar options

Homemade stepper motor of this type is equipped with one phase winding. The flow of current into it is carried out in a turning way with the help of a magnetic pole, which causes the complication of the circuit. It usually aggregates with a connecting bridge. There are a couple of extra wires that are not shared. When mixing the signal of such a motor at higher frequencies, the friction efficiency of the system is reduced.

Three-phase analogues with a narrow specialization are also being created. They are used in the design of CNC machines, as well as in some automotive on-board computers and printers.

Design and principle of operation

When voltage is applied to the motor brush terminals, they are driven into continuous rotation. The idle setting is unique in that it converts incoming pulses to a predetermined position of the existing input shaft.

Any impulse signal acts on the shaft at a specific angle. Such a gearbox is most effective if a series of magnetic teeth are placed around a central toothed iron rod or its equivalent. The electric magnets are activated by an external control circuit consisting of a micro regulator. To start turning the motor shaft, one active electromagnet attracts the teeth of the wheel to its surface. When aligned with the host, they move slightly towards the next magnetic part.

mini engine

In a stepper motor, the first magnetmust be enabled and the next element must be disabled. As a result, the gear will begin to rotate, gradually aligning with the previous wheel. The process is repeated alternately the required number of times. Such revolutions are called "constant step". The rotation speed of the motor can be determined by counting the number of steps for a complete rotation of the machine.


Connecting a mini-engine made by hand is carried out according to a certain scheme. The main attention is drawn to the number of drive wires, as well as the purpose of the device. Stepper motors can be equipped with 4, 5, 6 or 8 wires. The modification with four wiring elements can only be operated with a bipolar device. Any phase winding has two wires. To determine the required connection length in a step-by-step mode, it is recommended to use a regular meter, which allows you to accurately set the required parameter.

The powerful six-wire motor has a pair of wires for each winding and a centering tap that can be connected to a mono or bipolar device. For aggregation with a single fixture, all six wires are used, and for a paired analog, one end of the wire and the central tap of each winding will be enough.

device and principle of operation

How to make an engine with your own hands?

To create an elementary motor, you will need a piece of magnet, a drill, fluoroplastic, copper wire, a microchip, wire. Instead of a magnet, you can use an unnecessary cell vibrating alertphone number.

A drill is used as a part of the rotation, since the tool is optimally suited in terms of technical parameters. If the inner radius of the magnet does not match the same aspect of the shaft, copper wire can be used, wound in such a way as to eliminate shaft play. This operation makes it possible to increase the diameter of the shaft at the point of connection with the rotor.

In the further creation of a homemade engine, you will need to make bushings from fluoroplastic. To do this, take the prepared sheet and make a hole with a diameter of 3 mm. Then design the spigot. The shaft must be ground to a diameter that allows free movement. This will avoid unnecessary friction.

Final stage

Next, the coils are wound. The frame of the required size is clamped in a yew. To wind 60 turns, you need 0.9 meters of wire. After the procedure, the coil is treated with an adhesive composition. This delicate procedure is best done with a microscope or magnifying glass. After each double winding, a drop of glue is inserted between the sleeve and the wire. One edge of each winding is soldered together, which will make it possible to obtain a single node with a pair of outputs that are soldered to the microchip.

stepper motor

Technical plan parameters

Do-it-yourself mini-engine, depending on the design features, may have different characteristics. Below are the parameters of the most popular step modifications:

  1. SHD-1 - has a step of 15degrees, has 4 phases and a torque of 40 Nt.
  2. LSh-0, 04 A - the step is 22.5 degrees, the number of phases is 4, the speed is 100 Nt.
  3. DSHI-200 - 1.8 degrees; 4 phase; 0.25Nt torque.
  4. LSh-6 - 18/4/2300 (values ​​are indicated by analogy with the previous parameters).

Knowing how to make an engine at home, you must remember that the speed of the stepper motor torque indicator will be transformed in direct proportion to the same current parameter. The decrease in linear torque at high speeds directly depends on the drive circuit and the inductance of the windings. IP 65 motors are designed for harsh working conditions. Compared to servers, stepper models work much longer and more productively, and do not require frequent repairs. However, servo motors have a slightly different focus, so comparing these types does not make much sense.

homemade diesel engine

Make a homemade internal combustion engine

Do-it-yourself motor can also be made using liquid fuel. It does not require complex equipment and professional tools. A plunger pair is required, which can be taken from a tractor or automobile fuel pump. The plunger sleeve cylinder is created by cutting off a thickened element of the plume. Then you should make holes for the exhaust and bypass windows, solder a couple of nuts in the upper part, designed for spark plugs. Type of elements - M-6. The piston is cut from the plunger.

Homemade diesel engine will require crankcase installation.It is made of tin with soldered bearings. Additional strength will allow you to create a fabric coated with epoxy, which covers the element.

The crankshaft is assembled from a thickened washer with a pair of holes. It is necessary to press the shaft into one of them, and the second extreme socket is used for mounting the stud with the connecting rod. The operation is also performed by pressing.

Final work on the assembly of a homemade diesel engine

The following is the assembly order of the ignition coil:

  • Using a car or motorcycle part.
  • A suitable candle is being installed.
  • Insulators are mounted, fixed with "epoxy".
homemade stepper motor

An alternative to a motor with an internal combustion engine system can be a contactless motor of a closed type, the device and principle of operation of which are a system of reverse gas exchange. It consists of a two-section chamber, a piston, a crankshaft, a transfer box, and an ignition system. Knowing how to make an engine with your own hands, you can save a lot and get a necessary and useful thing on the farm.

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