One of the most useful products that almost everyone loves is a walnut. In everyday life, they call the fruit of some plants, most often shrubs or trees, consisting of an edible kernel and a shell, which is a hard shell. In this article, you will get acquainted with the varieties of some types of nuts, their breeding, planting rules, care, and you will also learn how the nut grows.
Peanut or peanut: varieties
South America is considered the birthplace of the nut. For active fruiting, this type of nuts needs warm weather with an air temperature of at least 20 and no more than 27 degrees, and in addition, moderate moisture and a lot of sun. Conventionally, cultivars of peanuts are divided into:
- Runner - this group of varieties has become popular since the 40s of the last century. The yield is high, and the fruits are universal. They are used as a s alty snack and for making butter.
- Spanish or Spanish varieties. This variety is grown mainly in America. They are especially deliciouss alted and candied. Much of it is processed into peanut butter and paste.
- Virginia - used mainly for confectionery purposes. Large fruits are fried and added to pastries, cakes or sweets. It has excellent taste.
- Redskin or Valencia - belongs to the Spanish varieties. It has a bright pink skin and a large core. Each pod contains three nuts, which weigh approximately 0.5 grams.
Before studying the information on how the walnut grows, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the Russian varieties:
- Krasnodarets 14 - disease resistant. The fruits are sweetish in taste, their size is about a centimeter.
- Valencia 433 - the fruit is quite large, oily, there are only two of them in the pod.
- Klinsky is an early ripe variety.
The preferred areas for its breeding in Russia are the Kuban and Stavropol. Seeds are sown in an open place when the earth warms up to 14 degrees. In other parts of the country, the seedling method should be used or cultivated in greenhouses. At the same time, it is imperative to protect young shoots from frost.
Rules for planting and caring for peanuts. How does a walnut grow in different conditions?
Seeds for planting are prepared in May, only he althy and large ones are selected. For the purpose of disinfection, they are placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Then washed and soaked in water at room temperature for 15 hours. Then dry in the shade and make sure that mucus does not form, as it willprevent germination. The first shoots appear in about a week. They are hardened by placing the container with seedlings in the refrigerator, and taken out at night and left indoors at room temperature. This manipulation is carried out three times, after which the seedlings are ready for planting in the soil. Below is a look at how a peanut grows in:
- Apartment. For a plant, a container is chosen wide and placed on a windowsill on the east or south side. If there is not enough sunlight, then fluorescent lamps are used. There should be no drafts.
- Teplice. It is best to plant them closer to the walls of the greenhouse and next to the tomatoes. Seeds are planted in a mixture prepared from sand and humus, taken in equal parts. Watered once every two weeks. After the appearance of the first leaves, thin out, leaving the he althiest and strongest.
- Open ground. Sowing is carried out in May. They do this in two ways: square-nested or wide-row. In the latter case, the distance between the bushes is about 20 cm, and between the rows - 60 cm. In the first case, the distance between the holes should be 60 by 60 cm. No more than five beans are placed in each hole, which is 9 cm deep. They are covered with soil and immediately watered.
For successful care, plants need warmth, light, top dressing (at least three times), watering, hilling.
How does a walnut grow?
Seeds, grafting or seedlings are used for propagation. For planting, preference is given to well-lit sunny areas. The distance between the trees is about 5, and when landing on the slopes - up to 3 meters. Choosinga place for a walnut should be taken into account that after 30 years the crown will grow and take about 12 meters.
Except for deep sandy and waterlogged soils, any soil will do. Finding groundwater should be at least 1.5 meters away. Planting of seedlings is carried out in the spring (mid or end of April) to prevent frost damage. A hole, 50 cm deep, is prepared in advance. Manure mixed with ash is added to it and superphosphate fertilizer is added. The root neck is deepened into the ground by 5 cm. The lateral roots are straightened and sprinkled with soil, then watered abundantly.
Now you know how a walnut grows, the photo of which is in the article. Next, we will understand the intricacies of caring for him. Before fruiting, other crops can be grown between walnut seedlings. The plant is watered twice a month, 30 liters of water are required per square meter. In spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, and in autumn - phosphorus and potash fertilizers. When making them in the spring, be careful, because there is a danger of a bacterial disease that provokes top dressing.
Experienced gardeners recommend abandoning it in the first years of fruiting. Pruning is required, the main thing is to lay the skeletal branches of the first tier. Lateral branches are not shortened. In the future, the tree is formed independently and only sanitary pruning is required, which is carried out in the spring. For the first wintering, the tree is covered with straw. ATfurther, to increase winter hardiness, ash is added to the near-stem circle. Fallen leaves are not removed.
Having got acquainted with the information about how a walnut grows, when choosing a variety, one must also take into account the climatic conditions in which the plant will be planted. A fairly large number of varieties found in the gardens of our country are known. Here are some of them:
- Dessert - grows well in the southern regions, easily tolerates drought. Severe frost can kill the plant. Fruits in the fourth year. Harvested in September.
- Abundant - the most fruitful. Prefers only warm climates. Even the slightest frost leads to the death of a tree.
- Sleek - disease resistant. Holds up well in hot and dry weather. About 20 kg of fruits are harvested in one season. Suitable for growing in all areas.
- Productive - resistant to diseases, tolerates winter conditions well. Planted in all regions.
- Voloshsky - unpretentious, tolerates both heat and frost. Grows naturally and in culture.
- Ideal - has a high frost resistance. Widely distributed in northern regions. Harvested in early October.
In order to better understand how the almond grows, let's get acquainted with its varieties. Winter-hardy include:
- Nikitinsky 62 - suitable for growing in all areas and is considered the most unpretentious variety. Has a highproductivity. It is endowed with large, wide fruits of sweet taste, having a dark brown hue with a wrinkled surface.
- Paper shell - the most resistant to spring frosts. Large fruits have a paper shell. Rough to the touch kernels of a light brownish hue.
- Primorsky - has a high yield. Fruit ripening - November.
- Petioled - recognized as the most frost-resistant. Endowed with excellent taste and yield.
Of the southern varieties, the most popular are:
- Y alta.
- Reems and others.
Now consider how almonds grow. Walnut is not difficult to grow, but there are some features that should be considered. When breeding, the following methods are used:
- Seeds - mainly used in nurseries.
- Grafting - grafted onto fruit trees (bird cherry, cherry plum, plum). Most often propagated almond three-lobed. Despite the fact that it is not winter-hardy, it hardens easily and successfully on winter-hardy rootstocks. Seedlings grow quite quickly and when they reach 30 cm in height they are transplanted to a permanent place. In the third year, the bush begins to bloom.
- Layers, offspring and cuttings. In the last days of June, partially or completely lignified cuttings about 20 cm long are taken, which are cut from young shoots. They are soaked in a solution containing growth stimulants and after 17 hours are transplanted into containers filled with peat-sand (in a ratio of one to one) substrate forrooting. Expose the container in a cold greenhouse, covered with a film. Roots appear after 25 days.
In a permanent place, it is preferable to create the following conditions:
- Fertile soil with good drainage. Suitable gravel, rocky and slightly clay soil.
- Open and bright areas.
The landing is in November. Drainage is necessarily laid at the bottom of the pit, which is covered with a layer of sand from above. Superphosphate and rotted manure are added in equal parts. The root neck is deepened by about 15 cm. Under each seedling, the soil is mulched with peat and a bucket of water is poured.
Having learned how a nut grows, we will study the rules for caring for it:
- Water the plant as the soil dries.
- In the spring they are fed with chicken droppings or manure. In autumn, superphosphate fertilizers are used.
- Cut diseased and old shoots in early spring.
- For the prevention of pest attacks - they are treated with special means.
- Regular loosening.
- To protect against frost, pinch the ends of the shoots. If reproduction was carried out by vaccination, then the almonds are covered.
Rules for growing cashew nuts or Indian nuts
Where and how does the cashew nut grow? It comes from Brazil and grows on a small tree with evergreen foliage. Currently, walnut can be found in different countries with a warm climate, including Russia. However, in ourcountry it is grown only at home or in greenhouses. Reproduction is carried out by seeds, which are pre-soaked in water for a period of not more than two days. Water is changed periodically. The resins of the upper shell of the nut are poisonous, so all manipulations are carried out with gloves. The container is taken small, the soil should be loose and light. Pallets are filled with pebbles. One nut is planted in a container. After three weeks, the first sprouts appear.
Tree formation required, pattern shown in the first year of life. A prerequisite is high humidity, sunlight. For top dressing use universal ready-made fertilizers. In the shade, the plant can be a short period. Fruiting occurs after three or four years.
Even in ancient times, it was noticed that the nut removes the feeling of hunger well. And thanks to the shell in which the fruit is enclosed, it does not deteriorate, which allows it to be stored for a long period. The main advantage of all nuts is the presence of a large amount of vitamin substances in their composition and high calorie content. With caution, it is necessary to use them for children and individuals with a history of food allergic reactions. And how the nuts grow, the photos of which are presented in the article, you now know.